There is a general consensus that the global economy is heading for a severe recession. The economic outcome will be mandatory, but at least there are some innovations that can be taken to mitigate the situation.

The central banks have already lowered interest rates and started quantitative easing in the US, UK and EU. But here’s something that further exacerbates the global financial situation: or central bank digital currencies (CBDCs) and cryptocurrencies.

According to both central banks and economists, the CBDC can make the monetary system faster and more efficient, while also increasing financial inclusion and reducing money laundering and tax evasion. At the same time, although central banks themselves are unlikely to use decentralized cryptocurrencies, they may have a positive macroeconomic role in the future.

CBDC: Faster, more affordable money
As early as 2016, the Bank of England published a working paper detailing the macroeconomic consequences of the CBDC issuance. It is noteworthy that the issuance of the CBDC equivalent to 30% of UK GDP “can continuously increase to 3% of GDP, due to lower real interest rates, distorted taxes and reduced cash transaction costs.”
what is a vpn
In March, the BoE released a new discussion paper, which again highlighted the macroeconomic benefits provided to the CBDC.

Given such potential advantages, the coronavirus pandemic has come at the perfect time for CDBCs and cryptocurrencies. Money use after locking in the US has fallen by about 50%, and payment in uncontrolled cards has increased in Germany.

And not just the Bank of England, which believes that CBDCs provide macroeconomic incentives. The Swiss Bankers Association also takes the position that the CBDC represents total net profit, as its public relations officer Michael Reiman told Cryptonews.com.


Palmetto Trail in Newbury County, South Carolina

The Palmetto Trail is a 425-mile South Carolina Recreational Trail that eventually connects the mountains to the ocean. Upon completion, this trail will begin at Orconi State Park in Upper State and end on the coast north of Charleston. The Palmetto Trail will be a multi-purpose trail designed for hikers, cyclists and equestrian enthusiasts. The network of other paths will branch from it. About 2/3 of the trails are complete and open to the public. Currently, Newberry County has access to three parts of the trail.
delta airline official
The biggest trail opened in Newberry County is the Enoree Passage. This 36-mile section runs through the Sumter National Forest. The Enoree Passage is a small road that runs through hardwood forests and pine ridges. It passes through two main creeks, the Gildes River and the Indian and Enno Rivers. The 80-foot viaduct on the river offers great views.
This trail also passes through three small fishing lakes: Lake Macedonia, Lake John Creek and Lake Sedalia. Hikers can follow wildlife trails such as deer, wild turkeys and other birds. There is also a beaver pond along the trail. The Enoree Pass is connected to the Buncombe Horse Trail and shares the trail ten miles. The northern end of the section is in the Sedalia camp in Union County and the south end is on Franklin Road in Newbury County.
allegiant air airlines tickets
Another part of the Newbury County Palmetto Trail is the Lynch Forest Passage on the outskirts of Newbury. This average three-mile trail passes through Lynch Forest Park. Lynch's Woods is a lovely mountain forest with torch pine, tulip poplar, pecan and white oak. The other trails in the park are open to hikers, mountain bikers and equestrians.
The third part of the Newbury County Palmetto Trail is the peak to the prosperity channel. The first phase was a 6.5-mile road that was opened in 2009. It can be reached a few miles east of Newberry in Pomaria and directly to the town of Alston in Fairfield County. This unique trail is a railroad trail on the right side of the road purchased from the Norfolk Southern Railway Company.
kayak flights search
This is a scenic hike, with 14 wooden trestles across Crims Creek and 1,100-foot bridges across Broad River for spectacular views. The second phase of the tunnel will eventually include an additional 4.5 miles of rail trails.
orbitz flights
Many people regularly enjoy the opportunity to exercise and entertain along different parts of the Palmetto Trail. Residents and tourists in Newbury County are eagerly awaiting the completion of the rest of the trail.


Peaches grown on farms in northern North Carolina

Summer is the peach season in South Carolina. The state is the second largest peach producer in the country and the leading peach producer in the southeast. There are many peach growers in the northern region that sell directly to the public. Here are some popular places to find those delicious farm fresh peaches.
frontier airlines reservstions
The family-run Abbott Farms has been selling selected, tree-shaped peaches in the northern region for more than 50 years. They also sell watermelon, cantaloupe, peanuts, jam, salsa and cider. There are six convenient locations in the area.
southwest airlines reservations
Spartanburg is located near Exit I-26 of Exit 22, and there are two locations in Cowpens, exiting north and south of Exit 83 at I-85. The Gaffney store is located at Exit 92 of I-85, while the Boiling Springs store is located at Exit 75 of I-85. The newest location is in Florence, South Carolina, at Exit 157 of I-95. Summer is open from Monday to Saturday. From 7 am to 8 pm.
cheap air tickets
Perdeaux Fruit Farm sells peaches, nectarines, plums, apples, blackberries and raspberries. They also offer a variety of locally grown vegetables, preserves, honey, applesauce and cider. The retail store is located north of Greenville, at 2400 Hwy 11 at Traveler's Rest. The time is from 10 am to 5:30 pm Wednesday to Saturday and from 12:30 am to 6:00 pm on Sunday.
hotel sites
Strawberry USA is a family-run farm located at Chesney 3097 Hwy 11. There is also a retail store next to the I-85 interstate on the 90th exit of Gaffney. They offer carefully selected strawberries in the spring and peaches and blackberries in the summer. Bread, salsa, honey, jam and fruit wine are also available. Breakfast and lunch are served in the on-site café. There is also an ice cream parlour at each location. The time is from 8 am to 8 pm every day.
booking hotels
The Peach Orchard is located in Yorkshire’s Filbert Hwy in 2077 and sells 25 peaches from June to September. Buyers can buy fruit from a roadside store or pick their own yellow or white walnuts. Jams, jellies and salsa sauce are also available. Ice cream parlors serve sundae, floating food and milkshakes. The time is from 8 am to 6 pm Monday to Saturday and 1-6 pm on Sunday.
cheap airline tickets
Spring Farm Peach Stand is located at 1325 Hwy 160W in Fort Mill, South Carolina. Their smaller farm market location is about three miles above Springfield Pkwy.
They sell peaches, nectarines, strawberries and blackberries by season. They also carry other locally produced produce, honey, barbecue sauces and seasonings. Shoppers can enjoy a snack at the on-site restaurant, bakery or ice cream parlour. The time is from 6 am to 9 pm Monday to Friday, 8 am to 9 pm on Saturday and 8 am to 8 pm on Sunday.


Visit the Greenville, South Carolina with the kids

Greenville, South Carolina, offers many family-friendly attractions in the state’s scenic Upper State. Visitors will find many activities with the children. Some of the favorite choices include the Greenville Zoo, Discovery Island Water Park and the North State Children’s Museum. For some sports, participate in the Greenville Avenue baseball game.
spirit airlines official site
The Greenville Zoo is located in the eastern part of downtown Cleveland Park. Visitors will discover wildlife around the world, including primates, elephants, giraffes, lions and leopards. The zoo is home to more than 350 animals. One of the newest residents of the zoo is the little giraffe named Kiko, who was born in October 2012. The Greenville Zoo is open daily from 9am to 5pm. Admission fee is $ 8.75 for adults and $ 5.50 for 3-15 years old. Available facilities at Cleveland Park include a picnic area and a playground.
all in holiday packages
Discovery Island Water Park is one of three water parks owned by the Greenville County Recreation Area. The park features a relaxing swimming pool, two water slides and a drifting river. The FlowRider is a simulated surf machine that allows visitors to practice drinking and boarding and surfing. Lifeguards are always on duty. The water park is located at 417 Baldwin Road in Southside Park, Simpsonville. Admission is $12 for guests 48 inches or more and $8 for children under 48 inches. Parking is available from Monday to Saturday from 10:30 am to 5:30 pm and on Sundays from 1-5:30 pm.
best price airline tickets
The North Children’s Museum is one of Greenville’s newest attractions. Interactive exhibits focus on art, science, health and nutrition, the environment and the humanities. Children can explore space travel on 3, 2, 1 Blast Off! Show. They can use cameras and phone reminders in WTCM studios. The Talkin trash exhibition tells the story of recycling and preservation. Kaleidoscope climbers are a favorite exhibition. Young children can play water games at the toddler’s lily pond. The Northern Children’s Museum is located at 300 University Street, Greenville. Summer time is from 9 am to 5 pm, Monday to Saturday, and from 11 am to 5 pm on Sunday. Admission is $10 for adults and $9 for children aged 2-12.

The whole family can have fun at the Greenville Avenue baseball game at Fluor Stadium in the West End. The team is an A-level member of the Boston Red Sox. They played in the South Atlantic League. Ticket prices are very reasonable, ranging from $5 for grass seats to $8 for private seats. Fluor Stadium is located at 945 S. Main Street. The county square has free parking and a free shuttle to the stadium.

Latest News from Long Island MacArthur Airport

1. Falling numbers:

The Long Island MacArthur Airport, owned by Islip, has been in a vicious circle since its inception. For a long time, airlines have been reluctant to provide services due to lack of passengers, and passengers have been reluctant to use the airport because airlines have failed to provide the services they seek. Over the past five years, this phenomenon has virtually made it non-existent.

Although the 1.8 million passengers in East Nassau and the Suffolk County catchment area make an average of 3.7 trips per year, these favorable facts end here because only 25% of people travel using MacArthur. If only uninterrupted service is considered, it has increased to 50%, and this statistic highlights the benefits of carrier services.

Indeed, in the five years from 2007 to 2012, the annual departures dropped from 14,784 to 7,930. This is the largest decline among all medium-sized airports in the United States. In fact, the facility on Long Island was reduced to 1999, which was triggered by Southwest The latest growth cycle.

Apart from being hit by the economic downturn and rising fuel costs like other terminals, it has historically been forced to operate in the shadow of the three major New York airports, so it uses many of the same market bases, but it depends almost exclusively on the Southwest Airlines to serve them. The trend of airline consolidation has further increased, resulting in a reduction in the number of potential air service providers. Nearly all airlines have operated from airports at some point in the past, and current fuel prices have made their code-sharing regional jets Unprofitable operations have prompted carriers to evacuate once-important hub feeds, such as Atlanta Southeast [ASA], Comair, Cincinnati, and Continental Express in Cleveland.

Southwest Airlines chose to deviate from its low-level, overpriced, second-tier airport business philosophy at the beginning of its establishment, and responded to passenger demand for major markets, gradually rebalancing aircraft assets from smaller cities to larger cities In order to achieve the maximum benefits, but most of the Islip market that has been dismantled by itself is nurtured in the process.

Contrary to that assessment, Southwest Airlines said the strategy reflects industry changes across the system, not just changes to MacArthur.

However, the factors involved in the Long Island market go beyond the trends of the entire system industry. After acquiring AirTran, it secured additional flights at LaGuardia Airport, which prompted Southwest Airlines to increase the frequency and destination of flights at high-yield and high-passenger airports.

During the peak hours of 34 flights a day on Long Island, it gradually reduced its business and stopped providing services to its two key cities, Nashville and Las Vegas, thereby cancelling the flights they represented.

By June 2012, when the Chicago Intermediate route was suspended and transferred to LaGuardia, its number of flights had almost halved to 18.

Although it is thought to revive the airport, it has now become an obstacle to its development in many ways. Because of its dominance and low fare structure, it has served as a deterrent to other airlines planning to serve there, especially on routes to Florida, where it has always monopolized it. However, like walking the tightrope, officials in Islip Town have been struggling to maintain a close relationship with the airline, as the future of the airport depends on it.

But this future depends not only on flights and passenger numbers. It also depends on the financial situation, and these are not optimistic. For example, in the three years from 2010 to 2012, the airport lost nearly $ 4.2 million, forcing it to use the funds it received from the $ 11 million in land sold to the Long Island Railroad in 2009 to compensate for the deficit and attract business leases. Terminal stores; the first general aviation landing fee; and reduced staff numbers and overtime.

However, what is needed is a more effective strategy to turn the tide. According to the situation at the time, is there?

2. Infrastructure improvements and suggestions:

As the region's economic engine, Long Island MacArthur Airport can only remain operational only if the town seeks innovative ways to attract fueled airline services, so it has undergone a series of infrastructure improvements.

On land, a $ 10.6 million terminal road redevelopment project began in September 2011 to redirect and simplify vehicle traffic, including an island in front of the building and a 750-foot canopy To make it easier for passengers to get off. Private transfers to and from public transportation. The project also includes lighting, drainage and vehicle safety checkpoints.

The project is funded by passenger usage fees collected from ticket sales. The project was completed two years later [ie January 10] with a budgeted cost of $ 300,000.

Another onshore project took place on the west side of the airport, Smithtown Boulevard. The planned removal of 52,000 square feet of outdated and unsightly wood, steel and concrete block structures is intended to attract businesses and operators afflicted by existing epidemics.

Of its three fixed base operators, Sheltair agreed to invest $ 20 million over seven years in exchange for a 40-year lease on 25 acres of its 36 acres, paving the way for the construction of 29,000 square feet of offices and 161,000 square feet Hangar space.

ExcelAire also signed a 40-year lease and also purchased $ 4.5 million to upgrade its facilities. The business jet services company was recently acquired by Hawthorne Global Aviation, South Carolina, and its jet services company demolished adjacent buildings and plans to add 32,000 square feet of office and hangar space to Capable of accommodating a new generation of very large business jets. , Such as Bombardier Global Express, Gulfstream 650 and Falcon 7X.

At the airport, Nakajima Air Services also follows its own lease and refurbishment agreement.

The reconfiguration of aerial land taxiways reflects the readjustment of onshore lanes. A $ 4.5 million grant was provided to the airport, 95% of which came from the Federal Aviation Administration [FAA] and the remaining 5% from the State and Township Department of Transportation, which helped streamline aircraft taxiing to runway 33L, reducing turns and time And fuel consumption. The project includes the expansion of taxiway B, the rearrangement of taxiway E, and the installation of airport signs, lights and road markings.

The bids were awarded to the Rosemar Patchogue contract [taxiway construction], Maryland's JKL project [taxiway design], and Ronkonkoma's Savik and Murray [runway obstacle clearance and equipment supply].

The result of the airport's short-, medium- and long-term master plans are other projects that include light rail personnel mobility to connect the terminal with the Long Island Rail Station and extensions, a 7,000-foot second runway to enhance the existing Operational security and attract new, remote.

It even suggested that the airport be transformed into an international gateway. To this end, Senator Charles Schumer, a longtime supporter of MacArthur, has launched a public campaign to this end, and a press conference was held on June 10, 2013, urging U.S. Customs and Border Patrol to establish a single door Facilities so that carriers can start flights to the Bahamas. And Aruba, often sun-dried destinations.

This promotion, stimulated by a letter of intent issued by Mexican low-cost airline Interjet and similarly priced but only proposed long-range European operator FlyA, could greatly expand the airport's operating range.

Although the Department of Homeland Security regularly reviews the need for such requests, its own resources are stretched and it is unlikely that it will commit to using potential, actually not necessary, facilities, and the well-equipped New York Airport itself was immediately able to adapt to this. Class flights without changing infrastructure.

These ambitious proposals created their own Catch-22 situation, much like the vicious airliner cycle at the airport. Although they may have succeeded in attracting new carriers and routes, it is almost impossible to justify their costs when the decline in traffic requires almost no existing ones.

3. Airlines:

Although these infrastructure upgrades and promising suggestions may improve current operators. From the operational experience point of view, the ultimate is the ability of Islip Town to attract airlines, which will inject the lifeline into Long Island Regional Airport. Therefore, it has made great efforts to this end.

A. Existing airlines:
After relocating the aircraft to Southwest La Guardia Airport, its latest appearance is only a shadow of the peak period. Under the current economic conditions, it is unlikely to increase the frequency of flights or open flights to new destinations. flight.

However, it emphasized its continued dedication to regional airports. Although, in theory, a provision in its 25-year contract would enable it to suspend all services after ten years, it has no plans to do so.

On the contrary, despite the substantial layoffs, the 68% load factor it experienced two years ago has intermittently increased to the current 92% due to its service reduction strategy. And, despite the fact that their simultaneous presence in LaGuardia and MacArthur seems to dilute the same market, their respective business and leisure orientations dispel that perception.

Nevertheless, the town of Islip has successfully negotiated new services with another existing airline, US Airways.

As the original tenant of MacArthur and the one with the longest service, and then Allegheny, the flight restrictions imposed by the 2001 terrorist attack forced him to cancel the scheduled service. It was renamed USAir to re-establish direct flights to Washington Reagan nationals. One. The route itself is the second route after Philadelphia, thanks to the exchange of flights with Delta of Delta in LaGuardia.

To commemorate the first of two 50 CRJ-200 regional jets operated by Wisconsin Airlines on March 25, 2012, the airport fire truck baptized them after landing at 12:50 pm.

According to Press day "Is looking forward to working with our senators and members of parliament to ensure that Long Island MacArthur Airport is a jewel in our town and has achieved its full potential," said Tom Croci, the director of Islip Town. Resources and attention needed for potential. & # 39; & # 39;

The aircraft provides important urban links to the U.S. capital and eliminates the need to take an hourly train from Southwest Airlines' similar Baltimore service, re-departing at 1:28 pm

Senator Charles Schumer said the new connection only confirmed Long Island as an untapped market. Although American Airlines carries only 6% to 7% of its traffic, it is considered overly important because its routes are commercial and hub oriented.

B. New airline:
Attracting existing operators to open services is only one aspect of the town's strategy. Attracting new customers is another matter, for which the Long Island Association, the largest corporate and civic organization, sent a letter to three airlines expressing interest in potential services: the three airlines mentioned above, as well as JetBlue and MRT Canada.

Although for the most part of the past decade, Southwest ’s stimulating demand and the effects of airport expansion initially left a mark on McArthur, its layoffs reversed that trend, and JetBlue Similarly, it was originally single-plane, with low fares and cheap decoration. Operators are considered to have the same positive impact.

White Plains has covered the New York area with three major airports in New York and its two secondary airports. Islip is the airport of Westchester County and Newburgh & # 39; s Stewart International and is one of three new destinations it has recently planned to serve.

Schumer played a role in the initial service of the New York route in the early 1990's, providing Schumer with 75 slots in exchange for a realistic upstate route, which is considered to be the missing piece of JetBlue's "Jaland Airways" ". Together with former director of the town of Islip, Phil Nolan, he highlighted their support in working with airlines and state and local governments to close deals.

Accompanied by Schumer himself, JetBlue CEO Dave Barger took a three-hour airport tour as part of the airline's evaluation process. Schumer introduced him as he passed about 30 departing passengers, and informed them that he was trying to persuade him to start the service, and sparked spontaneous applause.

With a total of 2.9 million residents in Nassau and Suffolk counties, Barger considers the area to be "a decent city" and because the Caribbean is a target growth area for the airline, he found the airport to be the Caribbean Regional and Latino demographics are favorable.

While JetBlue reflects its southwestern competitors in many ways, these ways [at least relative to the Long Island plant] have become the image of spitting everywhere. Having won auctions of eight flights at LaGuardia Airport, the company changed the capacity of the aircraft to a rival in New York.

Despite seemingly disappointing results, Bagh emphasized that, under optimal conditions, serving Islip is not a question of "if, but when."

Another airline contacted by the town has expressed interest in the Islip service, and the airline itself has expressed interest in the Islip service.

Market research shows that 58% of passengers in the airport catchment area have reason to fly to Canada, and more than 30 industrial parks covering 4,200 acres in the town of Islip have further strengthened such routes. In 2011, the two-way trade volume between New York State and the United States reached 34.8 billion US dollars.

Specifically, ties with Toronto are considered a win-win strategy. As the airline's 60th cross-border connection, it will provide it with non-crowded airport and airspace operations, minimizing fuel costs and delays, while passengers can use its main hubs for Canada, Europe and Asia Flight convenience. As pre-clearance immigration and customs facilities already exist in Canada, MacArthur does not need to make any changes.

However, La Guardia's dominance once again reduced it to a footnote. Since WestJet is its most powerful competitor, having just won eight seats at New York Airport, it is more prudent to focus assets here to maintain market share rather than transfer it to Long Island.

Alaska-based PenAir is the town's penultimate aircraft carrier exploring new services and has achieved more.

Through the FAA's Aircraft Carrier Reward Program, which reduces the cost of new entrants or existing entrants establishing new routes, the agreement saves them $ 120,000 in office, rental, operating and landing costs-or two years, provided that It continued to provide services for two years after that.

PenAir replaced the daily shuttle business shuttle and the subsequent American Eagle Saab 340 to Boston-Logan service, but was suspended in 2008, and PenAir opened on July 25, 2013 using the same turboprop equipment twice daily The round-trip service is considered a reasonable extension of Boeing's evolving Northeast route system, including Bar Harbor, Plattsburgh and Presque Isle.

The flight departs at 8:40 am and 7:10 pm and departs at Boston at 7:00 am and 5:30 pm with a one-way fare of $ 119.

The final carrier contacted Allegiant Air and also brought its wings to Long Island.

According to its press release, "The Las Vegas-based Allegiant Travel Company is committed to connecting travelers in small cities to world-class leisure destinations. The company operates low-cost, efficient, full-flight passenger jet airlines by Company: Its subsidiary, Allegiant Air, also offers other travel-related products such as hotel rooms, car rentals, and attraction tickets. "

After market research revealed the need for air services to Florida's west coast, the town of Islip courted the air carrier. The air carrier found itself with good customer base and announced its intention on August 20, 2013. This is one of 14 resorts served by the 99th city in the United States.

"We are excited to add beaches in southwest Florida as an affordable and convenient destination choice for Long Islanders," the press release said. "We are confident that the community will appreciate the convenience of direct access to Punta Gorda."

Offering a one-way fare of $ 69 and a round-trip fare of $ 99, Allegiant has launched Punta Gorda / Ft. Four months later, on December 20, Myers flew an MD-80 with 166 passengers as Flight 999, which departed at 7:20 PM. This date is considered a traditional holiday and Florida The beginning of winter.

Based on the response, seasonal and year round trips to Myrtle Beach, Michigan, St. Louis, St. Petersburg, Orlando, and Ft. Lauderdale and Las Vegas will be considered.

4. Current services:

Long Island MacArthur Airport needs sufficient air services before it can have an economic impact on the region. However, as of January 2014, 23 starting points were provided, two of which were not even daily, and this goal was barely achieved.

Southwest Airlines remains the main airline, offering five flights to Baltimore, three flights to Orlando, and two flights to feet. Lauderdale, two to West Palm Beach and one to Tampa-or a total of 13 operated by 737-700 aircraft. This is just more than one time it provided in 1999, when it inspired the airport's latest development period and restored it to its original development.

Since serving in Allegheny, American Airlines has been a stronghold, offering four de Havilland DHC-8 turboprop flights every day, flying to Philadelphia via its Piedmont regional carrier, and Bombardier CRJ- twice 200 regional jets to Washington, Wisconsin.

PenAir connects Boston with two Saab 340 flights, while Allegiant Air connects MD-80 with weekly services to Long Island Oilfield through Ft. Myers / Punta Gorda.

Resuming important business dealings with Boston and Washington, with two flights per flight accommodating 50 or fewer passengers, allowing travellers to avoid the traffic congestion and commute times associated with LaGuardia and move towards the right A step in the direction. But this is just a baby. If Long Island MacArthur is to grow into a regional supplier again and achieve its own economic sustainability through landings, operations, offices, concessions and parking fees, more aviation service injection is needed.

History of Republic Airport

1. Origin of Farmingdale Aviation:

The Republic Airport is located in Farmingdale on Long Island. It is an important airport in the region and in world history. It plays a role in both military and civilians. But long before it became an airfield, it gave birth to manufacturers of aircraft.

Ken Neubeck and Leroy E. Douglas wrote in their book Farmingdale's Aircraft Manufacturing (Arcadia Press, 2016): "The Industrial Revolution and aircraft manufacturing came to Farmingdale during the First World War, At the time, Lawrence Sperry and Sydney Brace built their pioneer factory in the community. ", P. 9). "They were attracted by the two branches of the Long Island Railroad … The nearby Highway 24 provided unimpeded traffic for cars and trucks to and from Manhattan's 59th Street Bridge; the flat ground provided land for the land. The flight field; And close to skilled workers … "

However, the earliest aviation roots in the region date back to 1917. The Lawrence Sperry Airplane Company was founded at a capital of $ 50,000. It is located in Ross and Richard Street, Farmingdale, a messenger-type aircraft.

Designed by Alfred Verville of the U.S. Army's Department of Engineering at McCook Field, the compact 17.9-foot-long all-wood biplane is specifically designed for "air motorcycle" missions. Pick-up and drop-off in smaller spaces. Gained its name from the battlefield commander. Sydney Breese similarly cultivated the aviation industry in Farmingdale. His Brees Aircraft Company, located on East Park Road, designed penguins. The mid-wing aircraft is similar to the Bleriot XI and is powered by a 28-horsepower two-cylinder, roughly running Lawrence engine. It is a non-flying pre-flight trainer designed to help U.S. Army pilots transition from junior to combat. It was deployed on the open grasslands of Texas and had a wingspan that was too short to generate lift, but it gave the fledgling pilot a pre-departure aerodynamic feel on the horizontal tail. Of the 301 products produced, only 5 are used for this purpose. The rest is stored.

2. Fairchild Airlines:

If Lawrence Sperry and Sydney Breese lay the foundation for aviation in Farmingdale, then Sherman M. Fairchild ) Consolidated its position.

Initially interested in aerial photography equipment, he founded Fairchild Aerial Camera Company in 1920, sold two of these devices to the Army, and further developed the company into Fairchild Aerial Surveying Company on the basis of obtaining another 20 contracts , Engaged in map production. .

In order to replace the various aircraft he operates with a specially designed camera platform, Fairchild designed the required specifications for an aircraft, but could not find a manufacturer that could build it at a reasonable cost. He was forced to do so, founding his third airline, Fairchild Aviation Corporation, and moving into the Sperry plant in South Farmingdale. After the unfortunate death of founder Sperry in December 1923, he Was removed from office.

This high-wing, strut-supported single-engine multi-purpose aircraft was named FC-1 and first flew in prototype form in 1926. The aircraft has a closed and heated cabin to protect the pilot and its camera equipment, but its original OX-5 engine proved insufficient. Modified with a higher capacity Wright J-4 and renamed it FC-1A.

The FC-2 production version is supported by wheels, buoys or sleighs, increasing cabin volume. Powered by a 200-horsepower Wright J-5 aircraft, the aircraft is intended for commercial operations and has a total length of 31 feet and a wingspan of 44 feet. It can accommodate one pilot and four passengers, or carry up to 820 pounds of cargo, weighs 3,400 pounds, has a top speed of 122 mph and can travel up to 700 miles.

Demand at the southern Farmingdale plant quickly depleted capacity. After conducting aerial surveys of the area, Fairchild himself selected 77,967 acres of spare land on Highway 24 and south of Conklin Street in East Farmingdale. The strip passes through the railway line and the main Highway 110 corridor, which will facilitate personnel and raw materials Transport to new areas. After repacking into an airplane, the latter can fly out.

According to the Long Island Republic Airport Historical Society, "The 77,967-acre Fairchild Airfield was developed in the late winter and early spring of 1928 and was originally owned and operated by the Fairchild Engine and Aircraft Manufacturing Company." "The first flight from (it) was At the end of the spring of 1928, when Fairchild Aircraft Corporation and Fairchild Engine Factory were completed and produced the aircraft. There, Fairchild made Model 41, 41A, 42, 21, 100, and 150 aircraft … "

Like the wings of the Hampstead Plain to the west, they once again rose from the farmland of Long Island and were built, propelled, and supported by Fairchild Aircraft Factory, Fairchild Engine Factory, and Fairchild Airfield, respectively. Faircam Realty, Inc. purchased the land, and its initial layout was established on November 3, 1927.

Although Fairchild has produced multiple models at its new Long Island Aviation Center, its roots will soon prove to be fragile. Just three years later, it relocated its headquarters to Hagerstown, Maryland in 1931, withdrawing from its facilities, which were almost immediately seized by the American Corporation (AVCO), whose aircraft and engine division is American Airlines The company produced 100 pilgrims for transportation. However, the Great Depression during the Great Depression severely weakened the demand for the Depression, because aircraft purchases accounted for a high proportion of the company's cost reduction list, and it turned out to be shorter than Fairchild. By mid-1932, it had also disappeared.

3. Grumman Aircraft Engineering Company:

Grumman Aircraft Engineering was originally located at Valley Stream, where it designed the floats, then moved east to the Fairchild Airfield, and lived in the former Fulton Truck Factory, where it hatched the first production fighter FF-1. The biplane is powered by a 750-horsepower Wright engine, with retractable landing gear, and also offers the SF-1 as a scout configuration.

However, the most important aircraft emerging from the eastern Farmingdale production line is the duck. Since its origins can be traced back to Loening Aviation Engineering's XO2L-1, it was submitted to the US Navy in 1931, but because Loening himself lacked the facilities needed to build it, he turned to his former colleague Leroy Grumman and then modified After resubmitting the form. The accepted biplane XXF-1 in 1933 was powered by a 700-horsepower twin wasp engine that powered a three-leaf Hamilton standard propeller. Its support, consisting of a set of pillars on the outside of the fuselage and a second set of wires between the two wings, was the smallest at the time. Water work is supported by the centerline below the casing, and the landing gear retracts into it.

A total of 632 JF and J2F ducks were produced, compressed into a global multi-role service.

Although Grumman's Farmingdale presence surpassed all other companies, it moved to the larger headquarters of Bethpage, Long Island in 1937 after a decade of development, ending.

4. Seversky Aircraft Company:

Seversky Aircraft Corporation subsequently moved there from Queens University College Point in Farmingdale, occupying the site of a former US corporate factory and becoming the center stage of Farmingdale.

A beautifully decorated World War I figure, Alexander P. de Seversky, like Igor Sikorsky, immigrated from Russia to the United States, and In 1923, the first gyro-stabilized sight was developed at the Sperry Gyro Company, and then its own Sevsky Airlines was established. Focus on aircraft instruments and parts.

It injected new funds and initially occupied EDO's seaplane factory.

His first major design, the SEV-3, was both stylish and progressive in aerodynamics, reflecting Seversky's aeronautical characteristics. The all-metal low-wing aircraft is powered by a 420-horsepower, head-mounted Wright J-6 cyclone engine that can accommodate one pilot and two passengers in a sliding tandem convertible cockpit, or supported by a wheeled chassis or Floaters, and in 1933 established the world speed record of piston amphibians. Two years later, on September 15, it maintained an airspeed of 230 mph.

The basis of many subsequent versions, with only minor changes to the basic design externally, then evolved into the next major version, BT-8. As the first all-metal enclosed cockpit design operated by the US Army Aviation, it has a length of 24.4 feet and a wingspan of 36 feet. Powered by 400-horsepower Pratt and Whitney R-985-11, the 4,050-pound airplane (which can hold two) has a top speed of 175 mph. Thirty seats were built. It led to the final version.

Seversky Aircraft Corporation, originally located at Hangar 2 on the New Highway, is now used by the American Air Force Museum and took over the Grumman plant when it was transferred to Bethpage in 1937, maintaining two facilities. But, recalling the short history of East Farmingdale Airport tenants, it suddenly came to an end: Although Seversky, like many other aviation-conscious "geniuses," has the necessary design skills to Manufactured an advanced aircraft, but he lacked the necessary management shortcomings to formulate a proper, profitable business plan to carry out the equations needed for marketing, losing $ 550,000 by April 1939. Six months later, on a European sales tour on October 13, he was fired by his own board, who voted in favour of removing him from the company he founded.

After the reorganization, it was renamed "Republic Airlines".

5. Republic Airlines:

The fate of Fairchild's airfield is about to change. Driven by World War II, the fledgling Republic Airlines will explode, and its foundations will be deeply implanted in the soil of Farmingdale, and it may even take decades to be discovered.

What played a role in that war was the Republic P-47 Thunderbolt

A successor to the Seversky P-35, a result required by the Army Aviation, including 400 mph airspeed, 25,000 feet service ceiling, at least six .50 caliber machine guns, armor protection, self-sealing fuel tank, minimum fuel capacity of 315 gallons .

The Republic P-47 Thunderbolt that dwarfs all other aircraft is the world's largest and heaviest single-engine, single-seat WWII strategic fighter, providing unparalleled diving speed.

Under the official name of "Republic Airport", the company's existing factory on the south side of Conklin Street was expanded due to the increase in warfare, three new buildings were constructed, control towers were installed, and its existing The runway, all of which is to support the production of P-47. In Farmingdale alone, the total production of P-47 reached 9,087 vehicles, and by 1944 it needed 24,000 employees. Thousands of employees pour in every day. A 24-hour uninterrupted production line sends an entire aircraft out of the factory every hour, which is then transported by a female Air Force service pilot or WASP. One of the Republic's main defence arteries, Republic Airlines, injected artificial machines into the agricultural plains of Farmingdale in 18 months and turned it into a democratic arsenal.

"By 1945, the Republic contributed more than 30% of the Army Air Force fighters to the European Air Force's battle against the German Air Force," Leroy E. Douglas wrote in the "Conklin Street Restricted Area" published in September. "The Long Island Forum, 1984 (p. 182). "Therefore, the Republic, Rangers and their more than 23,000 workers (more than half of whom are women) are part of their winning the war."

When the doors of World War II were closed, the doors of the Thunderbolt factory were also closed, the Republic was forced to carry out diversified product development in terms of use and power plant, transforming the military Douglas C-54 Skymasters into commercial DC-4 passenger aircraft, Produced 1,059 Seabee amphibious civilian aircraft and tried to design its own passenger transport.

The final aircraft, the Republic XF-12 Rainbow-and the competing and equally powerful Hughes XF-11-both won two contracts.

The rainbow imitates the beautiful lines of the Lockheed constellation, with a total length of 93.9 feet. It incorporates the design experience accumulated during the development of Republic fighter jets. When reported in Aviation Week and Space Technology magazine, its appearance exquisitely exudes, The sharp nose and cylindrical cigar shape of the XF-12 satisfy the designer's dream of an uncompromising design from an aerodynamic perspective. "

Peace proves the enemy of the plane. The end of World War II eliminated its need (and similar Hughes XF-11). However, because it has long-range, high-speed and high-altitude, day and night, and limited visibility photo scouting capabilities, it is an ideal area mapping platform. Indeed, on September 1, 1948, the second of two manufactured aircraft photographed its transcontinental flight route from the Air Force Flight Test Center in Muroc, California to Long Island Garden City during Operation Bird Eye Mitchell Field.

Back at the military roots, the Republic entered the era of pure jets with its P-47 Thunderbolt successor.

The design is 37.5 feet long and was conceived shortly before the end of the 1944 war, retaining the straight wings associated with propeller aircraft. These spans are 36.5 feet.

The first flight on February 28, 1946, a 19,689-pound fighter-bomber, named the F-84 Thunderjet, was able to climb at 4,210-fpm, and at the 3,750-pound J35-GE-7. It has a range of 1,282 miles and a service limit of 40,750 feet. Total production is 4,455.

Development of its successor began in 1949. Due to a shortage of Air Force funding, the Republic retained 60% of its versatility through the F-84, which reduced development costs, but adopted sweep-back wings. The aircraft was powered by a 4,200 thrust pound Allison XJ35-A-25 engine, originally named YF-96A, and flew for the first time on June 3 of the following year, three months before it was renamed F-84F Thunderstreak. .

The increased funding after the Korean War spark allowed the Republic to complete a second prototype, which first flew on February 14, 1951, using a YJ65-W-1 engine, followed by the first production aircraft, The plane went live on November 22, 1952. NATO countries deployed such aircraft during the Cold War.

The F-84F Thunder produced a total of 2,713 aircraft.

Nonetheless, Ken Neubeck and Leroy E. Douglas summarized Republic-based aircraft in their book Aircraft Manufacturing in Farmingdale (p. 7-8). Manufacturing. "Although aviation began in Farmingdale, it was launched with cloth-covered triplanes, biplanes, and propeller engines. Times, assisted US forces in North Korea and NATO countries in the 1950s. "

6. Fairchild Republic Corporation

Although Fairchild left the airport it created in 1931, this absence was brief. It reappeared three years later, and lived in its original engine plant as the newly formed Ranger Aircraft and Engine Company until 1948. But the second history is complete.

Nine years later, it acquired Hiller Helicopters, became Fairchild Hiller, and purchased most of Republic's shares in July 1965, establishing Fairchild Hiller's Republic Aviation Division. As a result Fairchild returned to the soil where the first seeds were planted. In 1971, it continued its mad acquisition, purchased Swearingen, and produced and sold this 19-seat, twin-turboprop Fairchild-Swearingen Metro commuter airliner. The following year, the company adopted the official name of the Fairy Republic.

Its principle design was conceptualized before the Republic was obtained. This was motivated by the Air Force's requirements for short-range air support aircraft. This aircraft is simple, easy to maintain, and has near-field performance so that it can be used in small fronts near the battlefield. Empty base operation line.

Designated as A-10 Thunderbolt II with a production capacity of 733, it played an important role during the Gulf War and Iraqi Freedom of Operations.

7. Post-war manufacturing:

Although Republic Airport and its airlines are involved in the design and manufacture of most military aircraft, its gates also feature a wide variety of commercial and space components.

For example, the Boeing 747 was indispensable with leading edge slats, trailing edge flaps, spoilers, and ailerons manufactured by Fairchild Hiller's Republic Aviation Division, while also providing a similar role to the Boeing 747 contract, but cancelled , Supersonic 2707 passenger plane.

Fairchild Republic components made in Farmingdale are just as indispensable as the space shuttle.

After receiving a $ 13 million contract from Rockwell International in Los Angeles on March 29, 1973, Fairchild Hiller designed and developed six aluminum vertical tails in hangar 17 The wing tail has a 45-degree leading edge, is 27 feet high, and 22 feet long. And related rudders and speed brakes. The first was installed on a corporate test vehicle, which promoted atmospheric launch from a piggy 747 platform at Edwards Air Force Base on February 18, 1977, while others were installed on the Columbia shuttle, Challenger, Discovery , Atlantis and Endeavour.

Fairchild Republic expands commuter passenger plane participation in Swearingen Metro, signed an agreement to launch SF-340 with Saab-Scania of Sweden on January 25, 1980, the first comprehensive joint venture between U.S. and European aviation manufacturers enterprise. Fairchild Republic was contracted to design and manufacture its wings, engine nacelle and vertical and horizontal tail surfaces, with final assembly in Sweden.

Fairchild Swearingen was named head of North American marketing, and Saab-Fairchild HB, a co-owned Swedish company, opened an office in Paris to perform this role elsewhere.

The aircraft is powered by a twin-turboprop engine and can seat 34 passengers in a side-by-side configuration of four with a central aisle.

However, after completing the assembly of about 100 wings, Fairchild terminated its contract work with the regional airliner, withdrew from all civilian projects and renamed the aircraft the Saab 340.

8. Role change:

On March 31, 1969, after the Republican Airport passed the ownership torch, it was operated by the Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA), which continued to convert it to public use by acquiring 94 acres of land from the US government and privately purchasing 115 acres Owned south and southwest of the entity.

The Long Island Republic Airport Historical Society said: "The Metropolitan Transportation Authority takes Republic Airport as a first step to transform it into general aviation (on-site)."

After starting the modernization program, it made some improvements. For example, high-intensity lights are installed on 5516 feet of runway 1-19 and 6,827 feet of runway 14-32, the latter also equipped with instrument landing system (ILS). The airport's original structure, the Fulton Truck Factory, was built in 1916 when it was razed, and Flightways converted a 10-acre site on the north side of Highway 109 into a new hangar, administrative Buildings, fuel storage tanks and plane abductions. A two-story administrative, terminal and maintenance building opened in 1983, not far from and shortly after the 100-foot, $ 2.2 million FAA control tower's operational phase.

In order to promote the economic development of the surrounding area, on April 1, 1983, the New York State Legislature transferred ownership to the New York State Department of Transportation (DOT) for the third time, a commission proposed by a 9-member Republic Airport. It has hardly reduced the momentum of modernization.

Indeed, eight years later, the $ 3.5 million, 25,600-square-foot Grumman hangar replaced aircraft storage facilities previously maintained at the now-closed Bethpage airport and accommodated Beechcraft King Air, Gulfstream I and two British NASA-125-800 seconds, open.

In April 1993, the US $ 3.3 million, 20,000-square-foot SUNY Farmingdale Aviation Education Center broke ground on the east side of Highway 110.

Executive Air Support's subsidiary Million Air built an 11,700 square foot Executive Air Terminal and corporate hangar at the southern end of the airport. By 2001, Air East began operating with its own new radial aircraft. The heated 10,000-square-foot hangar also houses 2500-square-foot shops and 4,500-square-foot offices and flight schools. Another hangar and office building in the Lambert area opened in June 2005 when charter company Talon Air began operations.

To provide clearance services for the latest generation of business jets, such as the Gulfstream V and Bombardier Global Express, taxiway B (Bravo) was relocated.

In fact, capital improvements have exceeded $ 18 million since 2000 alone.

These enhancements provide the airport with new general aviation functions, which may bode well for the future.

In 1982, the Fairchild Republic won a contract to build two next-generation Air Force T-46A training jets; however, this milestone, originally considered a lifeline of money, could only have the opposite effect: Although the prototype was the first time in three years Launched, but missing about 1,200 parts, and despite the second successful 24-minute first flight in July of 1986, the plan's contract was full of controversy, the contract was cancelled and 500 people were laid off.

Like many companies that rely on military contracts to survive, the Fairchild Republic has no choice but to cease to exist the following year, leaving behind a sprawling factory and a legacy that was passed on 60 years ago. Ironically, the two names that played the biggest role in the beginning and development of the airport were "Fairchild" and "Republic". The doors of Farmingdale's mainly military aircraft manufacturing and testing department were closed, while General Aviation's door opened.

Ken Newbeck said: "Fairchild terminated the SF-340 and T- with just four aircraft built as the company encountered significant financial problems from 1986-1987 and lost support for the T-46A plan in Congress. 46A production. "And Leroy E. Douglas in the manufacture of aircraft in Farmingdale (p. 99). "As a result, by the fall of 1987, Farmingdale's aircraft had been manufactured for 70 years, ending with employment and economic losses in the community and the New York Metropolitan Area."

9.Airline services:

In 1966, one year after ownership of the Republic Airport was transferred from Fairchild Hiller to Farmingdale Corporation, it was officially designated as a General Aviation (civilian) facility. The aircraft's first landing was a twin-engine Beechcraft operated by Islip's Ramey Air Service on December 7. In order to transform New York's three major airports into a gateway by facilitating flight connections, the Metropolitan Transportation Authority signed a contract with Air Spur to provide this feeder service four years later at a shared one-way fare of $ 12.

Although Republic has never been envisaged as a major commercial airport, Long Island's central location, proximity to Highway 110 corridors, and sturdy infrastructure make it a limited, regular and charter area ready to serve the state Serving major business and leisure destinations. However, its inherent operational limitations have been clearly identified in the 2000 Republic Airport Master Plan Update.

It explained: "At Republic Airport, Chapter 3, Page 8", the New York State Department of Transportation imposed a 60,000-pound aircraft weight limit in 1984. This weight limit restricts the operation of aircraft exceeding the actual total weight of 60,000 pounds without the written consent of the airport operator. "

The master plan update states that "forecasts indicate that the number of jets at the Republic airport will increase and that jet operations will increase," which was finally confirmed by annual pure jet operations statistics: 2,792 in fiscal year 1986, 4,056 in 1990, 4,976 in 1995, and 6,916 in 1998. In addition, this segment is also the fastest-growing segment of the average number of basic aircraft in this area (about 500): 10 jets in 1985, 15 in 1995, and 20 in 1998. Since then, that number has more than doubled.

One of the earliest scheduled flight attempts was carried out in 1978, when a single cabin, four-person side-by-side former Finnair Convair CV-340 and two former Swissair CV-440 metropolitan airlines provided all-inclusive, stand-alone bookings Charter flights from Atlantic City to Atlantic City. Its flyer suggested: "The net price to Atlantic City is only $ 19.95. How it works: Pay a $ 44.95 round-trip ticket to and from Atlantic City, including ground transportation to and from the Claridge Hotel and Casino. Upon arrival at Claridge, You'll get a $ 20.00 food and drink credit at any restaurant except the London Pavilion, plus you'll get a $ 5.00 flight credit for your next fight with Claridge at Metropolitan Airlines When using. "

The carrier also tried to provide regular round-trip Boston flights twice a day on the 1980-seat CV-440, a 52-seater airliner.

The construction of passenger stations is the basis for promoting this scheduled service growth.

"The terminal was completed in 1983 and has approximately 50,000 square feet of usable floor space. It houses airport service vehicles, maintenance, fire protection, public terminals and rental areas on the first floor and an administrative office on the second floor. 70 Employees work in the building, "updated in accordance with the 2000 Republic Airport master plan (Chapter 1, page 17).

In order to establish a link between Farmingdale and Newark International's major New York metropolitan airports for aircraft takeoffs, PBA Provincetown Boston Airlines began providing a Cessna C-402 commuter shuttle service to connect Long Island via a 30-minute air route Make up to 5 daily round trips with PEOPLExpress airlines and arrange a schedule. It promotes avoiding excessive driving time, parking costs and longer check-in requirements that would otherwise be associated with greater airport usage and facilitates passes, ticketing and baggage checks for all PEOPLExpress final destinations.

According to the timetable of the Northern System on June 20, 1986, it provided flights from Farmingdale in 0700, 0950, 1200, 1445 and 1755.

Demand soon forced the C-402 to switch to the larger 19-seat Embraer EMB-110 Bandeirante.

All of these brief, scheduled attempts were unsuccessful, which invalidated local residents. Concerns that the Republic will eventually develop into a major commercial airport and cause noise in the immediate vicinity did not attract enough attention to attract the necessary traffic to make it self-sufficient, highlighting airport-specific factors.

1). The Republic has been associated with general rather than scheduled actions late in its history.

2). Long Island MacArthur has established itself as the island's main commercial facility, and as Precision / Northwest Airlink has proven, carriers have not gained any revenue advantage by diluting the same market, but doing so has increased airports and operating costs.

According to the "Republic Airport Master Plan Update 2000", "The Republic Airport has served multiple commuter airlines, and each airline has ceased service …". "Considering larger airports such as LaGuardia, Kennedy and MacArthur airports and the services they provide, the commuter services market area is geographically limited."

It also said: "Since 1969, the Republic Airport has served the region's needs for civil and business jets, as well as charter and commuter operations." (Chapter 1, page 1). "Because the Republic is located in a residential, commercial and industrial development, its role is inconsistent with the scheduled commercial jet carrier airport."

As the number of passengers per year has been increasing, from 13,748 in 1985 and 30,564 in 1990 to 33,854 in 1995, the role of future commuters cannot be completely ruled out.

It concluded: "Although past efforts by commuter airlines have not been successful, the potential for future services still exists and should be considered in airport planning." (Chapter 2, page 10).

10. Future:

The fields of Roosevelt and Glenn Curtiss succumbed to the pressure of the modern era, replacing the runway with a large shopping mall, while the 526-acre republic surrendered only a small portion of its own to the Airport Plaza Shopping Centre. It played an important role in the development of early aviation and the Korean War, the Vietnam War, the Gulf War, and the Iraq War. It was transformed into a general aviation facility, peaked with 546 aircraft, and became the third largest New York airport after Kennedy International Airport. LaGuardia

The general aviation facility at the westernmost point of Long Island is hailed as the "Long Island 21st Century Business Enterprise Aircraft Bridge", providing 1,370 jobs and bringing in US $ 139.6 million in economic activity to support 60 airport operations. The 110,974 movements recorded in 2008 included 52 non-rigid airships, 7,120 rotors, 76,236 single-pistons, 6,310 double-pistons, 5,028 turboprops and 16,228 pure jets. The latter is its second-highest total, emphasizing its increasingly important role as "Teterboro of Long Island", which may point the way for the future. Indeed, the company considering the company's location as the company's location has the airport as its main asset because it provides close air passages for people and supplies.

Toward that end, the State of New York approved funding in April of 2009 for a Vision Planning process to collect data from residents, employees, businesses, and users, and then plot its future course. Specifically, the program had a three-fold purpose -namely, to define the airport & # 39; s role, to determine how it will fill that role, and, finally, to ascertain how it will work with the community to attain the desired operational and economic goals.

"As part of the National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems (NPIAS), Republic Airport is designated as a reliever airport with commercial service," according to the 2000 Republic Airport Master Plan Update (Chapter 1, p. 1). "Under ownership by the New York State Department of Transportation, there are specific state development and policy procedures which are followed. "

Although it may never eclipse its current general aviation role, its importance was not to be underestimated.

"" Republic Airport is an important regional asset, "it stated (Chapter 1, p. 1)." It provides significant transportation and economic benefits to both Suffolk and Nassau counties. The policy of the New York State Department of Transportation and the Republic Airport Commission shall be that Republic Airport continue to better serve Long Island. "

Whatever the future holds for it, it has a nine-decade foundation upon which to base it, as acknowledged by the plaque hung in the passenger terminal by the Long Island-Republic Airport Historical Society, "honor (ing) the tens of thousands of men and women who labored here in East Farmingdale, contributing significantly to aviation technology and aircraft production. "Those men and woman turned the wheels of the 11 aviation companies based there.


Long Island Republic Airport Historical Society website.

Neubeck, Ken, and Douglas, Leroy E. Airplane Manufacturing in Farmingdale. Charleston, South Carolina: Arcadia Publishing, 2016.

2000 Republic Airport Master Plan Update, New York State Department of Transportation.

Pierce Hale, Private Detective: Honeymoon Killer

At 7:30 pm on Saturday, Pierce Hale was escorted to the back of Club Dahlia. Sitting on a table made of mahogany, Pierce pours out of a slender green bottle, occasionally leaning back to smoke a ring, waiting patiently for his dinner. It was South Beach in Miami in 1945. Tropical plants decorate the room opposite the spacious archway, leading to the rooftop ballroom. The blue-and-white light from the hotel sign across the street faithfully bounced off the wall, cigarette smoke permeated the room, and the sirens screamed on the street below. They screamed, but not as often as Pierce was used to when he was working as a detective in the Boston Police Department's murder case.

Police chief Davin Laport failed to retain him, only months after Pierce had retired from Boston after working for 20 years. He spent a dark night in a tough city, and he missed the days of chasing the bad guys without having to fill out all the paperwork. Boring paperwork. That was the main difference between his work in Boston and becoming the owner of his own investigative agency in downtown Miami, and paperwork never seemed to end. Yes, sometimes he can take to the streets with his twenty-something investigator Johnny Batinni, but most of the time he is trapped in the second floor of a crumbling building Rented old brick house in downtown Miami.

He did not retire early, so he could realize his dream of owning an investigative agency, although he often convinced himself that was the reason. Pierce Hale retired so he could get closer to the woman the doorman had just ushered in. She wore a black felt hat, a long black dress, a red printed shirt, glossy red lipstick and black high-heeled open-toed shoes. Pierce's jaw dropped. He has known her for five years and his chin always falls down.

"Elizabeth!" Pierce shouted as he waved a fedora above his head. "I'm here!"

Elizabeth Booth was the most beautiful and intelligent woman he had ever seen. She didn't look like a 53-year-old woman at the time. Somehow, all the stresses of those years did not make her as old as most women. There were no wrinkles under her eyes, and her skin tone made her look 15 to 20 years younger. She is about five feet seven feet tall and weighs fifteen dollars.

Elizabeth strolled to Pierce, her heels approaching on the heavy wooden floor as she approached.

Elizabeth shouted, "I don't think I've been here since 1942, this is going to collapse." She moved a half-empty beer glass to the side.

"Don't be silly, Elizabeth. Less than six months ago, when I told you I was going to retire, we drank here," Pierce replied.

She leaned over and kissed Pierce and said, "That might be true. However, I still don't understand how these places were still left unattended in 1945." His cheek. "How are you, Pierce?"

"Oh, now that you're here, I'm better off than I was a few minutes ago." Pierce said, trying not to get excited about seeing her.

The truth is, Pierce has a lot in his mind today. Johnny Batinni had brought him a troublesome case, and he seemed overwhelmed.

"Actually," Pierce continued, "I'm feeling too hard for my lucky assistant. In the past two weeks, two women have been killed near Winter Beach. They are on their honeymoon and their husbands seem No connection at all. "

Elizabeth can tell when Pierce started talking and when he was actually struggling with the case. When he encounters work problems, the salt and pepper beard he always seems to pump slightly.

"It reminds me of a case I had in Boston in 1940, when three teenage boys were all drowned at the same place in Boston Harbor. These boys were not linked in any way except age. Find any Clue. In the end, the guy turned in because he felt the inner gui. It turned out that he was dismissive of his childhood and needed to take away someone who really enjoyed his youth. "

Pierce stopped for a moment, hoping that Elizabeth would provide some encouragement, which was her usual practice.

"So, do you think this might be some sort of random violence against newlyweds?" She responded.

"Indeed, the only problem is that I don't know where to start looking for this man. In both cases, the husband left the hotel for a few minutes, and when they returned, the wife was shot in the head. Caliber was 0.22. There is absolutely no evidence left. No fingerprints, no identification, nothing, "Pierce informed her.

"Where did all this happen, Pierce?" Elizabeth asked curiously.

It took Pierce a minute to remember the names of the two hotels where the murders took place. This was mainly because Pierce had stared at the long, windy black hair that had fallen off and hung completely from Elizabeth's brilliant hazel eyes. In the late 1930s, he returned to the day they met on a passenger ship in New York Harbor.

"One at the mangrove hotel and the other at the hurricane hotel," Pierce answered the question after recalling the content of the conversation. "Why are you asking this?" He continued.

Elizabeth replied, "I know the owners of most hotels on Winter Beach." "In fact, Lisa Potter is the owner of the two hotels you just mentioned. Have you talked to her?"

Pierce shook his head. He failed to get in touch with Mrs. Potter, though not for lack of attempt. Every time he dialed the dial on the phone and called her, he could hear nothing but ringing at the other end.

"She doesn't seem to be in the city, and I can't contact her," Pierce said. "You own two hotels that are the scene of two homicides. How do you prevent the local police from using their property?"

"Well, maybe you just didn't try your best to pierce Pierce," Elizabeth said with a smile. "Come to my office at 1.30 am tomorrow and I will call her."

Pierce wasn't the kind of person who would trust others to fulfill their promises, but he always knew he could count on Elizabeth. In addition, she has connections with almost everyone in southern Florida.

As the conversation ended, Pierce and Elizabeth spent the rest of the evening watching all of their favorite movies, politics, and postwar news.

The next day, at exactly 1:20, Pierce Hall arrived at the local university where Elizabeth Booth was a professor of English. When Pierce entered Elizabeth's office, he noticed that it was easy to go through security and find her office. This was very different from when he first visited Elizabeth in her apartment. The security of South Beach was impassable during the war, especially where Elizabeth lived. Not only were the police on both sides of the street, but military uniforms were found in most corners near her.

When Pierce walked into Elizabeth's office, he started to say something, but noticed that she was calling.

Elizabeth said to the phone: "He's Lisa, he just walked in. I'll give him the phone, and I believe he has a few questions to ask you." She went on and gave the phone to Pierce. "That was the hotel owner Lisa Porter you told me last night. She went to a beach house in Carolina, but I was able to find her phone number. The phone number of one of my colleagues."

"Hello, Mrs. Porter, how are you?"

"Well, Mr. Hale, if I knew that my investment was the birthplace of the two murders, I would have done better. When I heard that the police showed up and ransacked my hotel, I couldn't bear it. Imagine What will it look like when I come back! "The other end of the phone made a sound. Pierce could hardly hear Mrs. Potter's too loud voice.

"Mr. Potter is sorry for all this commotion, but I want to know if you can help us. Do you know who this might be? Can someone use the rooms in both hotels?"

Lisa replied: "The only person who can enter my two hotels is a clean boy. Well, he is not a real boy. His name is Skip Daniels. He is 35 years old and very bad. Very strange. But he It really makes those rooms sparkle. "

After a few minutes of conversation, Pierce collected contact information for Skip Daniels and thanked Mrs. Porter for her help. Pierce then thanked Elizabeth and told her he was looking for a cleaning boy. Pierce and Elizabeth argue over the next few minutes because Elizabeth thinks she needs to do this task, and Pierce never wants to put women, especially Elizabeth, in danger . However, as usual, Elizabeth won the debate and they headed to Piers' 1938 Dodge Coupe Downtown Skip Daniels apartment.

When they reached the run-down building complex, which seemed to be part of the Nazi German bombing, Pierce and Elizabeth walked to Gate 5, which skipped the apartment where Daniels lived.

Pierce knocked on the old wooden door for several minutes without any answer.

Elizabeth emphasized, "Break it down, Pierce." In doing so, she tried to kick the door and knock it off the hinge.

"I think that's the solution," Pierce said, somewhat surprised at his strength.

As they walked through the apartment, Pierce ensured easy access to his .38 police pistol. He didn't notice it, but as Pierce walked towards the bedroom, Elizabeth walked a path through the kitchen.

The apartment seemed empty until Pierce walked into the messy bedroom. Black and white photo of beautiful woman lined on cracked wall in bedroom. Pierce was almost disgusted by the number of posters. Each of them had a note written on it, which seemed to be the love message of a mentally insane person. As Pierce continued through the bedroom, he heard someone breathing from the closet. Pierce opened the closet and saw a man, wearing only shorts, who huddled in the corner.

"Skip Daniels, I think?" Pierce asked.

"You have nothing for me!" The man yelled. "You don't know me! You don't know what I went through! Those men don't deserve those women!"

Then, without warning, Skip Daniels jumped to Pierce Hall and grabbed the gun from the holster. Fighting ensued and the gun was loosened. Pierce used to be able to deal with criminals, but his body has begun to age. He hooked his right eye with his right hook, and immediately felt the bone fractured.

It was at that moment that he heard Elizabeth shouting: "Get off! Get off! Slime get off! Get off or I'll shoot!"

Pierce had never seen Elizabeth holding a weapon, but she seemed to know how to use it. Apparently she heard the sound of the fight and ran to help Pierce. When she saw the gun lying on the floor, she picked up the gun and took control of the situation.

When local police dragged Skip Daniels to court for trial, Pierce was able to gather a wealth of information about the person's history in his apartment. It seems that Skip recently proposed to his longtime girlfriend but was rejected. She was obviously deceiving him with another man, and Skip felt he had lost what he deserved.

"I think he will leave for a long time," Pierce said excitedly, exhausted.

"Yes, and I want to thank me for being alive," Elizabeth told him in fact.

"You know, Elizabeth Booth, you will be a beautiful private detective, and your resistance is futile!"

Pierce said in these words, escorting Elizabeth to his car and taking her home. He hardly knew it would be the first of many cases in which he relied on Elizabeth Booth to help bring criminals to justice.

American Airlines Deregulation Phase

I. Regulations

Although it was originally envisaged that the deregulation of American airlines would result in more and more airlines, their different service concepts, market segmentation, fleet and route structure will bring new competition, stimulate traffic and reduce fares, but Eventually entered the entire cycle, which eventually led to a virtual monopoly. Three different stages occurred during its evolution.

The law itself dates back to the time when Congress passed the Civil Aviation Act in 1938. The resulting CAB was established two years later in 1940 and was responsible for supervising fares, authorizing routes, granting subsidies, and approving intermodal agreements.

Elizabeth E. Bailey, David R. Graham, and Daniel P. Kaplan in their book Deregulated Airlines: "By definition, regulation replaces market regulation." (MIT Press , 1985, p. 96).

In fact, the environment is so tightly regulated that airlines often have to buy another airline in order to obtain authorization for their routes. For example, Delta Air Lines, which has long been interested in providing direct flights between New York and Florida, has petitioned the Civil Aviation Authority (CAB). However, the regulator believes that Northeast Airlines, a small operator in the Northeast region, is often plagued by low traffic flow, economic losses and bad weather due to its route system, so the revenue potential of the lucrative Florida route is needed to restore it to health and With approval it is authoritative.

With no fear, Delta Air Lines turned to the regional airlines for acquisition, which was later approved for merger on April 24, 1972. But soon these extreme conditions will no longer be needed.

California and Texas already have an understanding of the future. Because it has no jurisdiction over local air transportation, CAB can neither exercise fares for state airlines nor exercise route authorizations for state airlines, and these carriers usually provide high-frequency, single-cabin, effortless services , But prices are only half that of regulated "mainline" airlines, which continue to record profit and traffic growth.

For example, the annual passenger flow of California Airlines and PSA Pacific Southwest Airlines operating in the Los Angeles-San Francisco market increased from 1.5 million passengers in 1960 to 3.2 million in 1965. Southwest Airlines in Texas waits for Texas in Dallas and Houston. These airlines have demonstrated that true deregulation may provide fares for ordinary income passengers, provide more choices for airlines and services, and stimulate traffic.

In the mid-1970s, passengers and the government increasingly condemned regulation and cited examples set by California Airlines, PSA, Southwest Airlines, and other state airlines, demonstrating that deregulation could create mutually beneficial airlines and passengers. At least that's the theory.

In the end, President Jimmy Carter finally acknowledged rationality and democratic rule, and signed the Aviation Deregulation Act on October 28, 1978. This process eliminated the need for the CAB to authorize entry and exit routes and reduced the current Some fares are restricted. In 1985, the then-known "Sunset" Civil Aviation Council was dissolved, and even those will eventually be eliminated.

At the time of the event, the 11 "passenger" airlines designated at the time collectively controlled 87.2% of domestic revenue passenger miles (RPM), while 12 regions, 258 commuters, 5 supplementary states and 4 states provided in-house This leaves room for RPM allocation. After the deregulated dust settles, who will overwhelm the sky?

two. Deregulation

Phase 1: New generation airlines:

Like in-state airlines in California and Texas, an increasing number of non-traditional, deregulated derivative airlines have initially penetrated the US market. The first of these was Midway Airlines, which was the first airline to be certified after the passage of the Aviation Deregulation Act and was the first airline to actually launch the service in 1979.

Established three years ago by former Hughes Airwest executive Irwing Tague, Midway Airlines opened a low-cost, high-frequency, cheap "Rainbow Jet" in November of that year from Chicago ’s underutilized Midway Airport Machine "service. The city was the only airport until the completion of Hare, and Midway Airlines wanted to be resurrected by Southwest Airlines at Dallas & # 39; s Love Field-with five single cabins, The former TWA DC, which accommodates 86 people, was 9 to 10 seconds and initially arrived in Cleveland, Detroit, and Kansas City. Its low fare structure promotes rapid growth and strategically hopes to break into the Chicago market without attracting O & Hare competition from existing carriers.

However, with the help of Midway, the author can prove that it has learned three important lessons quickly, which shows that it must maintain great flexibility to survive in the current competitive market conditions:

Although it served the secondary airports in the Chicago area, it still competed in the Chicago market first.

Second, once existing airlines reduce their fares, their load factor will drop.

Finally, when airlines try to cater to specific market segments (such as high-yield business), high-density, low-fare strategies have become the main feature of the upstarts resulting from deregulation, but this strategy has no effect. , Comfort is higher, service is expected.

As a result, Midway modified its strategy by introducing a conservative beige finish. Single-seat, four-seat business class seats, increased legroom; additional carry-on luggage space; and upgraded free on-board alcohol service in exchange for fares higher than Rainbow Jet, but still lower than major airlines Fare. Unlimited bus tariffs.

The newly implemented strategy is called "Midway Metrolink", which has greatly reduced the number of seats per aircraft. For example, their DC-9-10 and -30 can accommodate 86 and 115 passengers, respectively, but under the new Metrolink strategy, they have only been reconfigured to 60 and 84 passengers.

From the initial 56,040 passengers in 1979 to nearly 1.2 million in 1983, this was clearly a success, and it sparked explosive growth.

Capitol Air, another deregulated and transitional airline, is also involved by the author, and has also experienced rapid initial expansion. It was founded in 1946. It was originally Capitol and started domestic charter services with Curtiss C-46 commando and DC-4. It finally gained the larger constellation L-049 and became second only to it in 1950. World Air, Fifth Largest Supplementary Airline for Overseas National Airlines (ONA), Trans International (TIA) and Universal. In January 1960, it acquired one of the largest used Super Constellation fleets, and during the 14 years from 1955 to 1968, it eventually operated 17 L-749, L-1049G, and L-1049H.

Chartered Airline was renamed Capitol International Airways and delivered the first pure jet aircraft, the DC-8-30, in September 1963, followed by four McDonald-Douglas designs Versions, including the -30, -50, -61, and -63 series, replaced the Lockheed Constellation as the main force of its fleet.

After the Capitol was scheduled to authorize in September 1978, the New York-Brussels route was opened on May 5, and the second Chicago / Boston-Brussels transatlantic route was opened on June 19. Like PSA and Southwest Airlines, Capitol was previously a supplementary airline and was not regulated by the CAB, so it carried out by sublimating the proven charter economy of single-cabin, high-density, low-unlimited, and even standby fares to scheduled services Your own "alternative experiment" to achieve low agent costs and profitability.

The reservation concept, branded "Sky Saver Service", has consistently attracted demand for more than capacity and has led to considerable expansion of the fleet and airline system. By 1982, the company had operated 6 DC-8-61, 5 DC-8-63, and 5 DC-10-10 from the hub of the New York-JFK International Airport, flying to New York and JFK International Airport respectively. Seven U.S. domestic, three Caribbean and three European destinations. Number of passengers: 611,400 in 1980, 1,150,000 in 1981, and 1,824,000 in 1982.

Passengers are unaware of carriers with low regulated fares, and their low fares can only be profitable through the use of second-hand aircraft, high-density seats, and lower-paid unemployed employees, and therefore often criticize Capitol ’s non-intermodal policies and refuse to provide meal SHI expressed criticism and delays in hotel rooms, as well as compensation received for missing connections from other airlines. Nonetheless, its fares in the New York-Los Angeles market range from an unrestricted $ 149 round trip to $ 189 one way, while professional rates are $ 189. Unrestricted tariffs on the market are hovering around the $ 450 mark. As a result, the load factor of the Capitol exceeded 90%.

By September 1981, ten new aircraft carriers had obtained operating certificates and were put into use.

"The original role of deregulation was dramatic," wrote Anthony Sampson in Sky Empire: Politics, Races, and Cartels of the World Airlines (Random House, 1984, p. 136). "" The new generation of aviation entrepreneurs sees opportunities to expand small companies or establish instant airlines, which may weaken fares on local routes; they can save most of the superstructure and bureaucracy of large airlines and can take advantage of Their flexibility hits the giants at their weakest moments, allowing them to reap the rewards quickly. "

Four types of airlines have emerged that have had a significant initial impact on the traditionally regulated airline industry.

The first is deregulated upstarts, such as Atlanta Airlines, Florida Airlines, Air One, Altair, US West, Best, Carnival, Empire, Florida Express, Frontier Horizon, Jet America, Midway, Midwest Express, MGM Grand Air , Morris Airlines, Muse Airlines, New York Airlines, Northeast International, Pacific Eastern Airlines, Pacific Express, PEOPLExpress, Presidential Palace, Reno Airlines, SunJet International, Hawaiian Express and ValuJet.

The second category is deregulated local service providers, including Allegheny, Frontier, Hughes Airlines, North Central, Ozark, Piedmont, South and Texas International, and they quickly overtook them. Previous geographic concentration imposed by regulations.

Third interstate airlines include California Airlines (later AirCal), Alaska, Aloha, Hawaiian Airlines, PSA, Southwest Airlines and Vienna Airlines Alaska.

The fourth category is deregulated charters such as Capitol Air, Trans International (later Transamerica) and World Airways.

Although some of these carriers, especially Air One and MGM Grand Air, target very specific market segments by providing premium seats and services, the vast majority (whether generated through deregulated parenting methods, improvements or maturity) , You can monetize (or try to achieve). Means of several core operating characteristics, including low-cost, unlimited fares, single hubs, short- and medium-distance route systems, high-density seats, limited in-flight services, lower-paid non-union workers, and mid-range, medium-capacity Jets (such as 727) and short-range low-capacity dual jets (such as BAC-111, DC-9, 737, and F.28).

All of these have achieved high load rates, generated huge traffic in existing and emerging markets, and generated considerable competition.

"In this regard," Barbara Sturken Peterson and James Glab in their book, "Fast descent: deregulation and escape from aviation," (Simon and Schuster, 1994, p. 307) wrote, "Deauthorization is like a charm."

Second stage: Monopoly:

Although established, traditionally regulated major carriers have temporarily reduced fares in some highly deregulated airline concentration markets to retain their passenger base, but established airlines that have long been regulated and protected by regulations have not Organize for their profitable operations. However, even as they manage to eliminate market competition, another low-price upstart seems to be waiting to fill the gap.

As a result, existing carriers face the option of choosing to abandon hard-growing markets or reduce financial resources to retain passengers until they go bankrupt themselves. It quickly became apparent that deregulated fare reductions would become a permanent element of the "new" unregulated aviation industry, and major airlines eventually found that they had to radically restructure themselves or succumb to new airlines. Ultimately, almost every aspect of their operations will change.

The first aspect addressed is the routing system. Traditionally made up of point-to-point, uninterrupted services, originating from the CAB route authorizations of 1940 and 1950, these route systems did not actually contain any inherent "systems" at all, and consisted of unbalanced geographic areas, leading to revenue loss. Inefficient and uneconomical use by other carriers and existing fleets. What is really needed is a centralized "collection point" for self-sufficiency.

Thanks to a bilateral agreement, European carriers actually operated the first "junction", guiding passengers from Copenhagen to Athens via intermediate connection points such as Dusseldorf. Theoretically, any passenger traveling on Copenhagen-Dusseldorf Airport or Athens-Dusseldorf Airport can be transferred to any outwardly radiating spokes of the airline, thereby greatly increasing the market served quantity. These European capital hubs also demonstrate increased aircraft utilization, improved traffic flow, a larger market base than traditional point-to-point services that rely solely on origins and destinations, and maintaining transit passengers.

According to Bailey, Graham and Kaplan, "Although passengers prefer frequent uninterrupted services, the cost of such services can be high" (p. 74). "Airlines are therefore faced with a strong incentive to establish spoke-and-spoke operations … By combining passengers with different origins and destinations, airlines can increase the average number of passengers per flight, thereby reducing costs. Essentially, broader The range of operations allows airlines to take advantage of the economies of scale of aircraft. At the same time, spoke-type operations provide passengers with more convenient services in markets with less travel. "

The first U.S. hub was built in the 1940s when the government awarded Delta Airways some lucrative long-distance routes to develop the southern region in exchange for its agreement to serve several small communities in Atlanta.

"All of these routes became spokes to the center of the Atlanta Delta," Peterson and Graber said (p. 120). "What follows is a significant advantage in retaining passengers."

Allegheny was previously a local service company in Pittsburgh and did not have a unique long-range development plan, but has achieved considerable success on its eastern and central Atlantic interstate route network, which has gradually grown due to the funnel point in Pennsylvania "development of". It expanded the balance between the main business and the small community route system, with a wider range of routes and destinations oriented towards leisure destinations, further facilitated this development. By 1978, 73% of its passengers reached the level of connectivity . By 1981, that number had risen to 89%, meaning that 89% of those flying to Philadelphia and Pittsburgh did not fly to Philadelphia and Pittsburgh.

The Delta and Allegheny hubs are just the beginning of this phenomenon, as the concept works more than concentrating airlines in a particular city. Instead, it led to the eventual monopoly strangulation, which prevented any competition.

For example, at the four major hub airports in the United States (Atlanta, Chicago O'Hare, Dallas-Fort Worth, and Denver), "the two largest airlines are just crowding out or actually preventing other airlines from expanding the market and Gain market share, "Julius Maldutis wrote in the airline competition at the 50 largest US airports since deregulation (Salomon Brothers, 1987, p. 4).

Atlanta, which once had a hub in Atlanta (Delta and Eastern), eliminates the possibility of any major third carrier competition. For example, in 1978, the delta and eastern hub traffic percentages were 49.65% and 39.17%, respectively, and after nine years, these numbers increased to 52.51 and 42.24%.

An analysis of the 50 largest airports (81.1% of U.S. regular passenger aircraft) shows that only ten of these airports are considered less highly concentrated. On the other hand, 40 (or 80%) airports are too concentrated. The ten most concentrated airports have an airline with a passenger aircraft market share of over 66%.

In St. Louis, TWA and Ozark are both hubs of hub operations, with the former having a 39.06% market share and the latter having a 20.21% share in 1978. In 1986, the corresponding figures increased to 63.16 and 19.68%, respectively. The following year, after TWA acquired its only major competitor, Ozark, it increased that share to 82.34%, while the other nine US domestic airlines shared the remaining 17.66%. The computer list of an airline reflects all carriers operating between the three major New York airports and Louis on December 1, 1995, and this day of the flight revealed 27 flights. No carrier other than TWA is operated by the carrier! This is power.

Similarly, the deregulated Piedmont occupied only 10.19% of the market share in Charlotte, North Carolina in 1977. After establishing a hub there ten years later, it monopolized it to a monopoly position of 87.87%. . The same changes happened in Pittsburgh, with Allegheny / USAir / US Airways accounting for 43.65% in 1977 and 82.83% in 1987.

Bailey, Graham and Kaplan write: "Since most cities cannot support convenient direct flights to the market, spoke-and-trade has become a major strategy for airlines since deregulation," p.196. "There has been a major shift from the regulatory vision of the linear system to the rising sun."

In addition to the hub concept, major carriers have experienced several other fundamental changes. For example, the aircraft has been reconfigured to make it more dense, with single-cabin seating in some cases, while business class has added first- and long-haul cabins to selected routes. Later, as some special niche deregulated airlines triggered a trend that followed the trend, first class was completely replaced by business class.

Fuel-efficient aircraft types are gradually being replaced by new-generation designs, with daily usage increasing from 8.6 hours in 1971 to 10.3 hours in 1979. In the 1970s and early 1980s, the average aircraft size of long-range aircraft increased, and in all categories the size of the 1980s increased. In the early 1990s, pure jet technology penetrated all markets for the first time, from areas with more than 50 people to intercontinentals with more than 500 people.

Employment has also changed. Robert Crandall, a former chairman and CEO of American Airlines, said, "Decentralization is an anti-labor, … wealth has been transferred from airline employees to airline passengers."

Reduced fares of deregulated airlines will reduce the income and profit base, from which funds can be redistributed to traditionally higher employment wages and benefits, thereby increasing employee productivity, cross-use, part-time, non-union, profit sharing Measures. In some cases, contract ground services companies have actually provided employment to reduce benefits compensation. The authors participated in the first ground services company experiment between JV and Royal Jordanian Airlines at JFK.

"Service-based companies are a relatively new but rapidly developing concept, according to the airport-based airline career profile (Hicksville, NY, (1995, p. 9)." Service companies subsequently hired personnel, Conduct training programs, if any, and determine hourly wages and benefits. "

After wearing Jordan's royal uniform and providing all ground combat functions, I often felt "trapped" while trying to please passengers and airlines. After all, they are all my clients, revealing the conflict inherent in the concept.

The reduced airline employment wages and benefits actually originated from Crandall himself, who developed a plan to reduce hiring costs with a "B" payment plan that initially offered lower salaries to newly hired employees and required They accumulate to longer life. Reach a higher "A" level.

Peterson and Grab (p. 136) said: "Americans (in themselves) are bound to increase significantly and have a great incentive to do so." "The more it expands, the more workers it will hire. -Pay at lower B-salaries-the more the average cost falls. "

According to Bailey, Graham and Kaplan, in their work, "relaxed the regulation of airlines", which created monetary and welfare compensation that exceeded industry standards. "It is now clear that rigid work rules and above-competitive salaries have flourished during the regulatory process. Airline employees appear to have benefited from CAB's protective regulations." (P. 197)

Another necessary condition for deregulation is the growing reliance on automation. American Airlines, again led by Crandall, created the first computerized air reservation system, SABER, followed closely by the American Apollo System. As a powerful sales tool, travel agencies bought these automated systems, travel agencies paid the owner different fees for each booking, and smaller carriers had to negotiate representation.

These systems are so complex and multifaceted that their information is gradually sublimated through all aspects of airlines, and its "booking model" provides bookings, itineraries, fares, hotels, travel and ground transportation bookings, frequent flyer miles tracking And ticketing; their "Departure Control System" (DCS) provides passenger check-in and issuance of boarding passes; and their "controller mode", which is used for aircraft weight and balance and load planning and loading Table generation.

Only through these complex airline booking systems can carriers implement "yield management" procedures, which determine the best balance between low-cost tickets that attract passengers and high-price tickets that generate profits based on seasonality, departure time, and demand. , Convenience, capacity and competition to ultimately produce profitable flights. For example, an airline reservation system consulting company listed 27 separate fares between December 1, 1995 and American Airlines between New York and Los Angeles, ranging from unlimited one-way first-class fares to $ 1,741.82 Coach fare to the height limit of $ 226.36. Access codes in the "Fare Basis" column, such as "KPE7HOLN", to show the restrictions attached to each code-printouts span several pages!

Another fundamental change in the deregulated industry is the structure and relationships of regional and commuter airlines with professionalism. Because history is sometimes cyclical, local airlines once showed a model of abandoning small communities and low-density routes. When they bought pure jets again, this happened again, but now there are two main differences: ( 1). According to regulations, today's regions are never restricted to these routes, and (2). Although they quickly increased their pure jet fleet, they tried to co-exist with professionals instead of competing with them through a code-sharing agreement in which the aircraft appeared on a large fleet-like aircraft, and Affiliated airlines are carried on the flight. Two-letter code.

For example, in the second half of 1995, of the 300 destinations served by Delta, 85 of them were actually reached by one of its four Delta Connection code-sharing airlines, including Atlantic Southeast Airlines ( (ASA), Business Express, Comair, and Skywest, which were the first companies to buy pure jet equipment at the time. American Airlines purchased its own commuter airlines and referred to them collectively as the "American Eagle."

However, the deregulation of the major carriers has been completed.

When the TWA matched Capitol Air's unlimited intercontinental bus fares, the former supplement recorded 30 passenger reservations on DC-8-61, otherwise it could accommodate 252 and canceled its flight. In a similar situation, between August 1981 and June 1982, when the load factors of the established USAir and upstart PEOPLExpress were analyzed on the Buffalo-Newark market, the latter consistently reported at least 20 points .

Bailey, Graham and Kaplan went on to say, "So the data shows that, for the same fare, many consumers choose to travel on an airline with higher name recognition and convenience." (P. 106) )

The competition eventually forced Capitol Airways to readjust its routing system to include an increasing number of ethnic markets and underserved markets until major airlines also eroded the territory. The airline had no choice but to apply for Chapter 11. Bankruptcy protection, ceased operations November 25, 1984.

Midway Island also faces opposition from major aircraft carriers. Indeed, no matter what strategy you use to define your best niche market, it will always be opposed by aggressive professionals. For example, when Florida Airlines was acquired in 1984, it reconfigured a two-seat aircraft, but riding on both sides of the seesaw quickly returned to the concept of a single seat, and in November 1989 it switched to a two-seater concept again. At the time, it operated an 82-person fleet of Midway Connection, carrying 5.2 million passengers a year.

However, excessive expansion and direct competition with American aviation during the economic downturn, trying to replace Eastern Airlines at the Philadelphia hub, led to its demise on November 13 two years later.

"While these numerous strategies indicate a constant re-evaluation of their routes, they also show that market conditions are unstable in a deregulated sky and that airlines are determined to stay in it, with the flexibility of concurrent service concepts, cabin configuration, seats Density and Marketing Strategies ", according to McDonnell-Douglas DC-9 (Hicksville, NY, 1991, p. 59).

Capitol Air and Midway are just two examples of professional, deregulated airlines succumbing to a radical restructuring. In fact, about 100 airlines have been certified since the passage of the Aviation Deregulation Act, and only at the end of 1995 did an airline in the western Americas still operate.

"(The major airlines) have implemented a strategy that they can still beat the low-price competition in their games by aggressively expanding and charging comparable fares despite some routes losing a lot of money, all for the sake of Maintain or, in some cases, to regain market share …. According to the Austrian Airlines Passenger Handbook-Kennedy International Airport (Hicksville, New York, 1990, pages 10-11), major airlines have adopted Eliminate competition everywhere and become strong and monopolistic.

The third stage: giant aircraft carrier:

Once the airline's expansion started, it appeared to be advancing and resisting inertia. By definition, monopolies have no boundaries. The next logical step is the penetration of foreign markets.

However, unlike domestic growth, "For American airlines, entering new foreign markets is much more difficult than entering new domestic markets because international air services are still heavily regulated by bilateral agreements between the U.S. and foreign governments ", Wrote by Peterson and Glab (p. 283). "… In order to win direct operating rights to a foreign country, American Airlines must purchase a route authorization from another American airline."

One will remember that this phenomenon was actually a duplication of the structure of the US domestic government before deregulation. In the latter case, such purchases are usually approved only if the airline authorized by the route has financial difficulties and needs to generate revenue from sales to continue to exist.

Pan American Airlines, particularly hit hard by deregulation, was forced to sell its lucrative Pacific branch and aircraft and ground facilities to Manchester United for $ 750 million to maintain operations. Manchester United Airlines was originally a large, financially sound airline but now has a global network of routes with appropriate domestic feed.

But more important than the sale is its far-reaching impact. Peterson and Glab (p. 148) went on to say, "United Airlines acquired the Pan American Pacific Branch with the intent of causing a domino effect. Many airlines are shocked by the new competition they face, and Northwest Airlines in particular, who are opposed Northwest knows it needs a bigger domestic network, and the fastest way is through mergers.

By the end of 1986, it had achieved this by acquiring the Republic, which was itself formed by the merger of the North Central and the South in 1979 and the second acquisition by Hughes Airwest in 1980, a strategy that uses all of its The hub's monopoly position rewarded the Northwest, such as Minneapolis, with a market share of 81.55%.

Worrying that it would not be able to compete with an airline of this size, Delta Air Lines acquired Western Airlines in September 1986 for $ 860 million, gaining a coast-to-coast route structure and new hubs in Salt Lake City and Los Angeles.

The TWA-Ozark merger that has been described has created such a big lock on St. Louis that it controls three-quarters of all gates and is able to evaluate higher fares in those markets where there is no competition.

In fact, these mergers can only make the carrier almost indomitable on a particular hub. Deregulation-spawned Empire, for instance-a rapidly-expanding New York State Fokker F. 28 Fellowship operator-adopted a Syracuse hub and recorded an initial 1979 market share of just. 75 percent, but this exponentially increased to 27.36 percent in 1985 when Piedmont acquired the growing regional. Two years later, its market share climbed to 39.82 percent. However, when USAir in turn purchased Piedmont, the Syracuse hub lock skyrocketed to over 61 percent.

Perhaps the most encompassing (and disjointed) merger was that between PEOPLExpress and Continental, which itself had already been the result of an amalgamation between the original, pre-deregulation Continental, Texas International, and New York Air. PEOPLExpress had equally already absorbed Denver- based Frontier. Texas Air, owner of the new conglomerate, also acquired Eastern, but retained its separate identity.

All these mergers, consummated during the latter half of 1986, unequivocally produced the "megacarrier."

"Deregulation & # 39; s theme, echoing Darwinian philosophy, clearly demonstrated itself to be & # 39; survival of the fittest, & # 39; which, for the airlines, translated as & # 39; survival of the largest, & # 39 ; according to the Austrian Airlines Passenger Service Manual-JFK (p. 10). "If the long-established major carriers … wished to survive and maintain the markets they had so carefully nurtured during regulation, they would somehow have to implement a strategy which would ensure that they would remain & # 39; large. & # 39; "

The major airlines & # 39; fundamental restructuring, beginning with monopoly and ending with megacarrier, constituted that strategy, as carriers tracing their origins to the infantile days of aviation and bearing names virtually synonymous with the industry fell like a string of acquisition-induced dominoes. By 1995 only seven US megacarriers remained, including American, Continental, Delta, Northwest, TWA, United, and USAir, along with two significant majors-America West and Southwest-a few "niche" airlines, and the regional-commuters which were almost Exclusively aligned with one of the megacarriers or majors through code-share agreements.

Even these names disappeared early in the 21st century. Like brides and grooms walking down a monopoly-destined aisle, Delta married Northwest, United took Continental as its lawfully wedded, American joined arms with US Airways, and Southwest tied the knot with AirTran.

III. Conclusion

Although the examples set by Air California, PSA, and Southwest had indicated that a deregulated environment would ultimately prove to be mutually advantageous to both the operating airline and the passenger, these experiments failed to approximate actual conditions, since the rest of the US airline industry was still regulated and these fledgling airlines had therefore been insulated from major-carrier competition. Lacking the authority, cost structure, and equipment, they had been unable to launch comparable service of their own.

The initial proliferation of small, low-fare, no-frills, non-unionized deregulation-spawned, -bred, and -transformed airlines provided tremendous airline-, fare-, and service concept-choice only until the major carriers implemented their fundamental route system, aircraft, employment, computerized reservation system, and regional airline affiliation restructuring, reversing the expansion phase into one of buyout, merger, bankruptcy, retrenchment, consolidation, monopoly, and, ultimately, megacarrier. The upstarts, having lacked the majors' name recognition, financial strength, frequent flier marketing tools, and size, invariably succumbed, leaving most of the original dominant airlines, although in greatly modified form, until even these surrendered to prevailing forces. US airline deregulation had thus come full cycle.

A Brief History of Orange Balls

What exactly is an orange ball? The short answer is that no one knows. However, it is one of the most common phenomena of all anomalous aerial phenomena occurring in our sky today.

The person who undresses the bulletproof vest will tell you whether this is a spherical illuminator or a flare attached to a helium balloon by a con artist or Chinese lantern released by the party. It may be true in a few cases, but can it fly at 800 miles per hour and stop on a dime or hover in the terrible wind for hours? Is it common for military aircraft to chase Chinese lanterns and helium balloons? These spheres then appear to be accompanied by significant intelligence. They merge, separate, form geometric patterns like triangles, rectangles, and star constellations, blink and return, and some so-called contacts even claim to communicate with them telepathically.

Conspiracy theorists will suggest that they are plasma ball weapons developed by DARPA or other US government agencies. The Boeing Phantom Factory is rumored to be developing these directional energy weapons [DEW] for the military, but keep large plasma spheres suspended in the atmosphere for several hours, or guide them here at speeds faster than the speed of up to 30 groups At one point it was still science fiction. This is happening in our sky with or without the participation of Boeing!

The Mutual UFO Network [MUFON] does not classify them as unidentified aircraft [UAV] and requires field investigators to mark them as "unknown others" in their reports. When searching for reports, MUFON does not even use the term orb. The closest you can classify in their database is a circle or a sphere. However, if one enters the MUFON sighting database [dear reader, anyone can], there are reports from all over the world every day, and even some reports provide good video evidence to support sightings. Are they technical processes, some kind of biological entity, or both?

To be clear, these orange spheres that are completely silent on our sky are not to be confused with the small supernatural spheres commonly found in photographs around cemeteries and haunted houses. These are objects with advanced technological capabilities, but sometimes when they are seen up close, they appear to be melting pulsating energy or biomass pulse clusters, whose outlines are somewhat fuzzy and may be mechanical, but they are almost invisible like a shell .

In 2008, the British Ministry of Defence released what they called X-Files, with a lot of information about Orange Orbs:

"The presence of UFOs [UAP or UFO] is indisputable. It has the ability to hover, land, take off, accelerate to amazing speeds and disappear, thanks to the manned or unmanned presence of any known aircraft or missile Flying.

Conditions that initially form and maintain distinct [plasma] buoyant charged matter can form, separate, merge, hover, climb, dive, and accelerate.

Depending on the temperature of the color and the density of the aerosol, it can be seen visually through the plasma color produced by itself, reflected light, or through the contours of light blocking and background contrast.

Occasionally [perhaps with exceptions], there may be fields with uncertain characteristics between some charged buoyant objects. These objects are in a loose form, and the intermediate space between them forms a region [usually a triangular shape]. No reflection of light occurs in the area. This is a key finding attributed to what is commonly referred to as a black "craft" [usually triangular and hundreds of feet long].

Although the focus on these spheres is spreading globally, especially over the past two years, their existence is not new. Some researchers believe they are the incarnation of the famous and mysterious Foo Fighter as seen by Allied pilots in German skies during World War II.

Harold T. Wilkins in his 1954 book "UFO Under Attack" describes the 415th night squadron pilot Lieut, who suffered a severe World War II events. On December 22, 1944, David McFalls, 20 miles north of Strasbourg, Germany:

"At 0600 [6 pm] near the 10,000-foot-high Hagnau, two very bright lights climbed towards us from the ground. They leveled up and stayed on the tail of the plane. They were huge orange bright lights. They were at Stayed there for two minutes. I was on my tail and they were under full control. Then they left us and the fire seemed to go out.

Clippings collected by UFO scientists from around the world, such as Cris Aubeck and Jacques Vallee, clearly show the existence of orange celestial bodies in the 19th and early 20th centuries, pre-war Americans were in space Before harvesting Nazi scientists and engineers. So an inconclusive Foo Fighters is a secret weapon designed by Russia, Germany or the United States.

In the Indian Gazette in July 1832, we received the following reports on orange balls:

Meteors from June 23 to July 24, 1832 were observed in Delhi and Meerut. On the 23rd of last month, an oversized meteor or three fireballs initially rose from the Est Southeast horizon and rose to about 15 degrees to form a large fireball. Its size is the same as a full moon on the meridian and passes about The 115-degree sky arc disappeared before. The light is very bright. "

On October 2, 1907, exactly the following happened in Reynoldsville, Pennsylvania:

A compelling story tells of a phenomenon that occurred in heaven at about 6:30 last night, which was confirmed by the foreman of the Star [Reporting Newspaper] and a friend who witnessed it. When they were standing and chatting near Frank's Tavern, a splendid golden fireball suddenly appeared in the north of the sky, remained still for a moment, and then divided themselves into three splendid and beautiful flames of almost the same size, moving slowly and gracefully. Curved downward curve. In addition to its huge appearance, it also has beautiful bright colors, similar to the appearance of a sky rocket. As the three stars moved across the sky, a faint trace was left on their tails, very similar to the description of a comet. Mysterious stars disappear behind the horizon of the East … "

Recorded again in the Australian "Kapunda Herald" on March 16, 1880:

Residents of the town informed us that strange things happened on the morning of Monday, March 15. From five o'clock to four in the morning, a star seemed to burn brightly in the northeast sky about 45 degrees above the horizon. It then fired southwest at extremely fast speeds, but remained motionless while still above the horizon. It burned for a quarter of an hour under faint glare, then slowly condensed in the southwest, as bright as it first appeared.

Spheres were even mentioned in April 1676:

"In Offenburg, a comet was found, which resembles a hair sword with the blade pointing west. There is a star next to it and two blood-red spheres."

Source: Extraordinary Maanedlige Relationer, April 1676

Even the U.S. Air Force's project logo [also known as the "Disc" project, later the "Resentment" project, and later the "Blue Book"], has Major General Carbell [the second commander of General Vandenberg, dated November 1948]. [March 3] Letter to Colonel McQuay Coy. The UFO responded on November 8th, stating:

"The objects described are divided into the following general categories based on their shape or general configuration.

a. ] Flat or round or nearly round.

b] Torpedo or cigar-shaped aircraft without wings or fins in flight

c] spherical or balloon-like objects

d] Photosphere without obvious appearance

It is item d] we care about!

Lake Erie, in particular, has been a popular place for people to visit since 1867. Native American tribes in the area call it "the light of the wizard", suggesting that it has existed there for a long time. So let's start our investigation at Lake Erie.

Enter Michael Lee Hill 2006

Beginning in 2006, a musician named Michael Lee Hall living on the shores of Lake Erie began recording videotapes and appeared in the sky. His video is clear, clear and rich. Check them out on YouTube. To some in the UFOlogy community, Michael has been degraded by his unfounded claim that he is a descendant of Annanuki and has a special bloodline. The blood was sent by Bill Birnes to the now-defunct UFO Hunters TV show for analysis and returned with some extraordinary results that did not prove he was an alien-just rich Contains an enzyme called Creatine Kenase, which some UFO scientists believe is a trademark side effect of the enzyme as a result of the abductees.

MUFON also investigated his findings on the orange spheres of Lake Erie and concluded that these were just the planes Michael was filming. This conclusion has been strongly challenged because Lake Erie has been a no-fly zone since 9/11, and because the Perry nuclear power plant is located near Cleveland.

Enter Robert Bigelow 2010

Michael Lee Hill has made some extraordinary but even weird claims on many UFOlogy blogs, online community pages, and TV shows, but one of them is interesting and seems reasonable. He claims that in 2010, Gary Hernandez, an investigator at Bigelow Aerospace, contacted him about the problem of finding his sphere and asked Michael to disclose the coordinates of the place where his sphere was found. A search of LinkedIn.com revealed that indeed, Gary Hernandez, with a broad law enforcement background, had worked as an investigator for Bigelow's "classification project" between 2010 and 2011.

If this statement is correct, it will project the orange ball in a whole new perspective. Robert Bigelow, a billionaire real estate developer from Nevada, made his fortune with his own hotel chain. His aerospace company launched two modules for the International Space Station. He sees the future of his company in the field of space tourism. Mr. Bigelow is also interested in UFOs. This stems from his childhood, when his grandparents were almost killed in a car that escaped the orange orb on the run. His now dissolved National Institute for Discovery Science collected UFO sightings [especially Black Triangle sightings] until 2004.

In 2009, Mr. Bigelow established an extremely cruel and unfortunate financial partnership with MUFON, a non-profit organization, and the partnership was quickly withdrawn. Mr Bigelow also owns the infamous Skinwalker Ranch, a breeding ground for livestock mutilation and the discovery of orange orbs. It's even more obvious that the Federal Aviation Administration has now delayed pilots' UFO sightings to Bigelow astronauts.

The gist of all of this is that we have a billionaire aviation tycoon who is clearly interested in the coordinates of the sight of Lake Orange's orange sphere. If they were just planes like MUFON said-why? If Michael Lee Hill is a liar-why?

Maybe this is an attempt to intercept and retrieve one, especially if it is alien technology? That's why!

Enter Terry Ray 2014

Terry Ray is a MUFON field investigator in Pennsylvania. I met him at the Muffon conference in Pittsburgh in October, and he was a very nice person. Terry wrote a book this year with a very long, long title called "The Complete Story of the Orange Ball Global Invasion", available from Sunbury Press. This is a three-part book that began with his investigation of the phenomenon and subsequently sandwiched approximately 200 actual reports submitted to MUFON and elsewhere in the book.

Perhaps the biggest achievement of Terry's investigation into this phenomenon is his sightings based on thousands of MUFON Case sightings in the past few years. Terry has determined that these sphere sightings have grown exponentially and can be seen in every major U.S. city, apparently trying to get as many people as possible to see it. If they are indeed aliens, then their goal seems to be to slowly adapt humans to their existence. But they completely avoided one city, and that was Washington, DC. Do they avoid confrontation with our army? Will Chinese lanterns with flares and helium balloons be so discerning?

Terry also believes that these spheres come from underwater bases and often make Atlantic coasting at night, and are also visible in Lake Erie and the Atlantic [such as Myrtle Beach, South Carolina] [no surprise] .

Terry sees them as aliens, and this seems to be gaining more and more consensus.

I'm a MUFON field investigator, and this year I investigated 50 weird cases, about 40% of which were orange orbs found in New Jersey.

Although there is no video or photographic evidence, the MUFON 5937 case that occurred on August 14, 2014 may be the thing I am most moved by. The distant object is clearly an orange ball. Witnesses first saw the object up close within a distance of no more than ten feet. It was a crumbling glowing orange ball hanging in the air, the bells around it were faintly visible, and almost invisible to the naked eye. Witnesses gave specific dimensions, approximately 8 feet high by 5 feet wide. It is shaped like a bell or sea fish. It hovers near an outdoor transformer outside her backyard, possibly trying to absorb energy from it. When it realizes her existence, it starts to back off and accelerate to show its perception and awareness of her existence.

On August 24, 2014, witnesses in MUFON case 59219 in Wahita, Louisiana described the same object as New Jersey saw in case 59379. They said, "My wife and I noticed an orange, transparent bell-shaped object about 200 to 300 feet above the ground, headed north, and turned 90 degrees east. There was no sound at all, watching it until it disappeared."

Witnesses plotted a very accurate bell-shaped plasma sphere.

When comparing cases 59219 and 59379 with Michael Lee Hill's first encounter with an orange ball in 2006, we got an amazing description similar to a close-up of the sphere. Michael said it looked like a bowler hat, and he added more specifically: "It looks like a flat platform made of glowing plasma red, you can recognize the edges well, they are not blurry. Sitting on the top of the platform looks like a hot sun, a bit like a plasma ball, about the size of a small airplane, this ball is about 1/3 of the bottom length, just draw a line with a ball on it It looks like the line is about ten feet thick.

All three close encounters with Orange Orbs are very similar. They appear to be balls of energy, surrounded by greater energy. The outline is large and flat at the bottom and small and round as it moves towards the top.

It may be a coincidence, but on December 9, 1965, in Kecksburg, Pennsylvania, a strangely shaped object fell into the woods outside the city, causing a rapid and overwhelming military response. No matter what the object is, it is mounted on a flatbed truck and is no longer visible.

Another more interesting coincidence emerged from the conspiracy field of bell-shaped orange balls. In 2000, Polish weapon expert Igor Witkowski published a book entitled "The Truth of Magical Weapons". It details his experience of talking with Jakob Sporrenberg, a former senior Nazi SS official, who told Mr. Wittkovsky that the now infamous Nazi experiment "bell" [Dai Ge Locke].

What Die Glocke is and whether it really exists is a matter for debate, but when we travel in our sky with bell-shaped orange spheres in a truly mysterious environment, one must wonder if the Nazis are indeed engaged in some sort of Platforms using exotic technology for transport work may have been reverse engineered to form a crashed UFO in Germany before World War II. If you believe in Mr. Wittkovsky, many German scientists have given their lives for this experiment. Also, suppose it fell into the hands of Americans after the war. Is Bell an advanced propulsion system or something more exotic like the suggested time machine? Was Glocke an object that crashed in Kecksburg in 1965? Is Die Glocke an object seen in the backyard of New Jersey in 2014 MUFON case # 59379? We don't know, but we see new patterns.

Give a reason. MUFON case 57701 held in Eaton, New Jersey on July 5, 2014. Witnesses said that after seeing an orange celestial body crossing the sky, "in a matter of minutes, several fast-moving aircraft were found flying in the same direction as unidentified objects were flying."

Eatontown, NJ is located north of McGuire Air Force Base. The Air Force insists that they do not investigate UFOs, but we have seen time and again in the MUFON database reports that apparent fighters are scrambling behind UAVs. This has been happening since the 1940s, and they never seem to find these things!

How long have they been here? Centuries or more?

3500 years ago, in ancient Egypt, Pharaoh thothmosis III devoted himself to the description of the alien creatures that papyrus might have in his sky:

"The archivist or chronicler or chronicler of the House of Life found a fire in the sky on the 22nd [six hours a day] of the third month of winter. [But] it has no head, from its mouth With a foul breath, its body was one stroke long and one stroke wide, silent, the scribes' hearts became frightened and confused, and they lay flat on their stomachs …

They reported to Pharaoh. Ma ordered … have been checked … he is pondering what happened and recording it in the papyrus of the house of life.

Now, days have passed and these things are becoming more in the sky than ever before. They shine more than the brightness of the sun and extend to the limit of the four supports [a quarter] of heaven …

These fiery circles dominate the sky. Pharaoh's army was with him among them.

after dinner. As a result, these rings of fire rose southward in the sky. "

"Fish, winged animal or bird fell from the sky. Since the establishment of this land, there has never been such a miracle! Pharaoh brought incense and made peace on earth … Pharaoh ordered to write down what happened Everything in the history of the House of Life … let it be remembered forever. "

Is this when the orange ball first reached Earth? Maybe they are alien tourists looking for a new home. Since they arrived 3500 years ago, they do not seem to have caused any problems on the planet. Are they a group of creatures who want to live in peace with humans? Are they machines? Are they biological entities?

What is their affinity for water? It has long been speculated that they have underwater bases near Myrtle Beach and Lake Erie. why? They have been found worldwide since World War II, from the Pacific Ocean to the Atlantic Ocean to the Arctic to the Tasmanian Sea! Is there any water that can soothe them or help cool their engines, or provide them with food in some way?

In the past summer, you can see the lights below the sea. Are there a bunch of orange balls under the Pacific Ocean?

From the Daily Mail on August 26, 2014:

A pilot and his first officer discovered the mysterious orange and red rays on the Pacific Ocean.

During a Boeing 747-8 flight from Hong Kong to Anchorage, Alaska, strange lights were found in the southern part of the Kamchatka Peninsula of Russia.

Although no explanation has been given, they are thought to be caused by the explosion of a huge volcano on the sea floor.

Dutch pilot JPC van Heijst explained … After five hours of flying for 10 hours, how did they find a strong lightning flash, pointing vertically into the distance. It then glowed in crimson and orange after 20 minutes. Due to a lack of explanation of what happened, this experience disturbed Van Heist.

Together with his co-pilot van Heijst, they felt "everything but comfortable" without the other aircraft confirming witnesses nearby.

We reported our observations to the Air Traffic Control Agency and have now begun investigating what happened in this remote marine area, he added.

Although we are still far from solving the mystery of the Orange celestial body, at least now we have some questions to ask. Are they aliens? Are they friendly? Are they time machines or multidimensional transport machines? Are they secret government black operations such as anti-gravity propulsion systems? Are they machines? Still alive? We don't know yet …!

So what exactly is an orange ball? The short answer is that no one knows. But we will definitely learn a lot!

Richardson Murder Case

She was a former New York City actress Abby Sage. But after ex-husband Daniel McFarland's murder of his lover at Richardson's workplace in the New York Tribune on November 25, 1869, journalist Albert Richardson It is the sage lifestyle that is respected, not just McFarland.

Daniel McFarland was born in Ireland in 1820, but he moved to the United States with his parents when he was four years old. McFarland's parents died at the age of 12, leaving him orphaned. McFarland is determined to do his own thing in the United States, doing hard work in a wiring harness store, saving money for college. By the age of 17, McFarland had saved enough cash to be able to attend the famous Ivy League school Dartmouth. McFarland studied law in Dartmouth and has done well. After graduating, McFarland passed the bar exam, but McFarland did not practice law, but taught at Brandywine College, teaching eloquence-clarity of expression.

In 1853, McFarland traveled to Manchester, New Hampshire, where he met a very beautiful 15-year-old girl named Abby Sage. Abby came from a poor but respectable family-her father was a weaver-but Abby was smart, and soon she became a teacher and publishing writer. Four years after they met, McFarland and Abby Sage married. She is only 19 years old, and he is twice her age.

Abby later wrote in an affidavit on the murder of McFarland: "When we were married, Mr. McFarland told me that he had a vigorous legal business, With bright political prospects and $ 30,000 worth of property, he was forced to borrow money in New York during our bridal tour, which allowed us to travel to Madison, Wisconsin, our future home. We live in this town, But for a short time, he acknowledged that he had no legal consequences and that he only focused on land speculation, some of which had disastrous consequences. "

In February 1858, McFarlands moved to New York City. McFarland told Abby that in New York City, he has a greater chance of selling properties he owns in Wisconsin worth $ 20,000 to $ 30,000. However, McFarlane initially found nothing, and soon Abby had to pawn most of her jewelry to pay the rent. With bills piled up and no money to come in, McFarland thought it best to go alone. As a result, McFarland returned Abby to her father's home in New Hampshire. In late 1858, McFarland was finally able to sell some of its properties in Wisconsin. Shortly thereafter, he brought Abby back to New York, where they settled in a rented cabin in Brooklyn. There, their eldest son Percy was born in 1860, and their second son Daniel was born in 1864.

McFarland's land sales business was sluggish and he started drinking heavily. Abby later wrote: "In the beginning, Mr. McFarland gave me the most luxurious and enthusiastic dedication, but soon he started drinking heavily, and his breathing and body were full before we were married for a year. He had bad wine. He cried, "My brain is on fire, and wine makes me fall asleep. "

When the civil war began, McFarlands returned briefly to Madison, Wisconsin. Soon, McFarland realized that, with the right circumstances and some training, his beautiful young wife would be the better paid of both. To implement his plan, McFarlands returned to New York City with the goal of educating Abby as an actress.

In New York City, Abby was struggling with dramatic reading, and she found she was talented on the stage. One thing led to another, and soon Abby starred in several plays, earning $ 25 a week. Abby's career grew so quickly that she soon appeared opposite Edwin Booth, the great actor of the Venetian merchants [Edwin Booth, the man who killed Abraham Lincoln, John Brother of John Wilkes Booth. Abby also wrote several articles about children and nature to supplement her income. She even wrote a book after her son Percy An anthology of poems, titled Percy's Rhymes.

Abby's artistic achievements have expanded her circle of friends. She became a newspaper tycoon Horace Greeley, his sister, Mrs. John Cleveland, and New York Tribune publisher Samuel Sinclair and his wife were quick and good friend.

However, his wife's success did not appease McFarland's wildness. He used his wife's new friends and connections between them to get political appointments. Abby later said: "Under the influence of New York Tribune founder Horace Greeley, I worked with a dean for him [McFarland]."

Soon, McFarland was jealous of Abby's new friend, and his drinking increased exponentially. McFarland kept all the money that Abby made and wrote, all spent on wine. McFarland started to open Abby's private mail, and if he didn't like what he read, he would threaten to kill Abby and himself.

Abby said, "At this time, he has become a demon." "He will lie on the bed, tearing the clothes on the bed into pieces, threatening to kill me. When he is exhausted, he will cry crying I forgive and then fall asleep. "

Once, McFarland became so angry that he hit Abby's face hard, which caused her to fall. Since then, their relationship has changed dramatically.

Abby said: "His eyes made him burst into tears and he begged me to forgive him frantically." "But from that moment, I can never tell him that I love him or forgive him, because that is not the truth."

In January 1867, McFarlands moved into a boarding house at 72 Youshan Street, New York City. Shortly thereafter, Albert Deane Richardson, then in his thirties, moved into the same boarding house. Richardson has been known to Abby because they met at the Sinclairs' home. Richardson, with an orange beard and hazel eyes, is considered a very high-quality figure.

Richardson was born in Massachusetts and was one of the most famous journalists of the time. He is best known for his work as a field correspondent for the New York Tribune during the Civil War, and he also spent some time as a spy in the north. Richardson was captured by the South in Vicksburg in 1862, and he spent one and a half years in two separate league prisons. When Richardson and another war correspondent were imprisoned in Salisbury, North Carolina, in December 1863, they escaped from the prison and walked 400 miles until they reached Knoxville United Line of defense. Richardson had a wife and four children when he was in prison. When he returned home, he found that his wife and baby daughter had died. Richardson provided care and support for the other three children, who were thirteen, ten and six when he died.

Richardson returned to the New York Tribune's desk and used his civil war heroes to write about escape. The headline of his newspaper article was "Out of the Shadow of Death, Out of Hell's Mouth". It is considered one of the best news during the Civil War. Richardson expanded this article into a book, and combined with other works, Richardson transformed himself from a prisoner of war to a rich man. So much so that Richardson bought a stake in the New York Tribune and made himself a minority shareholder in the newspaper.

When Richardson and McFarlands moved to the same boarding house, he was now the editor and writer of the New York Tribune. [Editor's note: In 1980, I was a reincarnation sports columnist for The New York Tribune.] Richardson used his room at 72 Amy Street as an office and a place to sleep. Among his staff at 72 Friendly Street, Richardson hired a stenographer, an artist and a messenger boy to deliver his work to the New York Tribune office in Park Row.

On February 19, 1867, McFarland returned to the dormitory, and his wife stood outside Richardson's door. Abby claimed that Richardson and she were discussing one of his articles, but McFarland did not.

Abby later wrote: "When we entered the apartment, my husband was furious and insisted that there was an improper intimacy between Mr. Richardson and me."

McFarland immediately went on a three-day detour, where he threatened Abby's life again and said he would commit suicide. Finally on February 21st, Abby left McFarland permanently. She caught two children and lived with Mr. Samuel Sinclair and his wife.

In Sinclairs, Abby called her father, who now lives in Massachusetts and briefed him. The two sides agreed to invite McFarland to join Sinclair's residence. In front of Sinclair and her father, Abby told McFarland that their marriage had ended.

That night, Richardson called Sinclair's residence. Richardson expressed condolences to Abby and said he would do everything he could when she needed help. Then as he was leaving, Abby followed him into the corridor.

She said with tears, "You are very kind to me. I cannot repay you."

"How do you feel about facing the world with two children?" Richardson said of Abby's two children.

She replied, "A woman looks difficult, but I'm sure no one is better than being with him."

Richards told Abbey before leaving: "I hope you remember that you have chosen to take any of my responsibilities in any possible future and I will be happy to take them."

Two days later, Richardson asked Abby to marry him and told her that he wanted to give her own motherless children her care.

Abby later said: "It's absolutely impossible that I don't love him."

On the evening of March 13, 1867, Richardson met Abby in the theater where he had just performed. As they turned, McFarland rushed behind and fired three shots. One of them pierced Richardson's thigh. It was a superficial wound, and Richardson's injury was not serious. McFarland was arrested by the police, but McFarland managed to escape the jail time due to some inexplicable transactions by the court.

When McFarland became apparent that his wife had lost him forever, he decided to sue to raise two children. The court made a disagreement decision that Abby would be under the guardianship of Daniel and McFarland-Percy. In April 1868, Abby tried to meet her son Percy, but was rejected by McFarland. McFarland was furious and threatened to beat her. At this point, Abby had no choice but to file a divorce.

In New York State, the only reason for divorce is adultery. Therefore, in July 1868, Abby decided to go to Indiana to divorce, where the grounds for divorce were more extensive. These reasons include drunkenness, extreme cruelty and inability to raise a wife. Abby spent 16 months in Indiana until her divorce with McFarland ended. Abby then went to her family's home in Massachusetts, where Richardson met her and spent Thanksgiving 1869 with her and her family.

At 5:15 pm on November 25, 1869, McFarland walked into the Park Street office of the New York Tribune. He hid quietly in the corner for about 15 minutes until he saw Richardson enter through the side door of Spruce Street. While Richardson was reading the mail at the counter, McFarland rushed up and fired a few shots at him. Richardson was hit three times, but he was still able to walk two flights of stairs to the editorial office, where he fell to the sofa himself and was killed by a bullet in his chest. When medical staff arrived, Richardson was taken over the town hall to Astor House and lay on the bed in room 115.

At 10 pm, McFarland was arrested in Room 31 of the Westmoreland Hotel on the corner of Seventeenth and Fourth Streets. Captain AJ Allaire told McFarland that he had been arrested for shooting Richardson. McFarland initially said he was not guilty. Then he said in shock: "It must be me."

Captain Allaire detained McFarland and took him to AstorHouse in Room 115. After Captain Allaire asked Richardson if the person in front was his attacker, Richardson looked up weakly from the pillow and said, "That person!"

Abby Sage was summoned to New York City immediately. Upon her arrival, at the request of Richardson, Horace Greeley made arrangements so that Abby and Richardson could marry after Richardson's death. The wedding ceremony was chaired by Rev. Henry Ward Beecher and Rev. OB Frothingham. Three days later, on December 2, Richardson held his breath, leaving the legacy of Abby Richardson.

Prior to McFarland's trial, his defense attorney John Graham told New York media that Abby Sage's intentions for Richardson were by no means glorious. "This gentle and touching marriage is a terrible and shameful ritual to obtain the property of a dying man, which often hastened his demise," Graham said.

At first, Richardson's compatriots in New York City defended Richardson's honor, and they began to delve into McFarland's life in an attempt to find something that would make McFarland lose his reputation. The New York Tribune wrote that McFarlane "has the habit of eating opium to drown his sadness."

However, the New York Sun carried out a publicity campaign that discredited Abby and Richardson. The Sun accused Richardson of enticing Abby to leave her dear husband in an editorial entitled "Public Rage Against Religion and Etiquette." The Sun even talked to the McFarlane brothers, saying: "Abby went to school just to have the opportunity to paint her face, work for beauty, and get along with the free-loving tribe of Sam Sinclair. S."

A media battle ensued, with most daily newspapers in New York City arguing that Richardson and Abby were immoral, while McFarland killed the man who stole his wife from him.

McFarland's trial began on April 4, 1820. Abby dropped out of the trial because she knew her husband's defense lawyer was on a mission to humiliate and notorious her. Graham, however, sought the jury's sympathy for his client by having McFarland's son Percy sit next to the jury during the trial.

Graham pleaded with the jury to understand the mental suffering the client was forced to endure. "The defendant's mental organization is so sensitive and gentle that he cannot cope with the grief and misfortune that awaits him. His speculation is disastrous, and the seeds of dissatisfaction begin to sow first," Graham said.

When Graham attacked Abby's virtues and honors, he became a major force in defense. "When she first met my client, she was just a poor female factory worker. But once she told my client that all I had to do was make me an elegant lady and be welcomed by the New York elite . # 39; "

Graham then told the jury that the turning point in customer life happened on February 21, 1867, when McFarland returned home at 3 pm and saw his wife leave Richardson's room.

Graham said: "This beautiful woman has been completely corrupted." "She once put the honor of the stage and aristocracy in front of her as a temptation. Then, she was too elegant and so popular that she was inconspicuous. Character, and the demon put her before all these temptations, and she has to pay for it. Richardson is with her soul "

Graham noted that McFarland's day at the New York Tribune's office had reached the boiling point of the client. An office boy wrote him a letter saying "Ms. McFarland". The boy mistakenly thought the letter was addressed to "Mr. McFarlane".

Graham told the jury: "My client opened the letter and read it carefully and found that it was a love letter from Boston's Richardson to Ms. McFarland. Richardson publicly stated in the letter that he intended to marry the woman. Ok Divorce Mr. McFarland. "

During the trial, prosecutors, under the leadership of a former judge, then MP, Noah Davis, focused on how McFarland abused his wife and occasionally beat her after marriage. In support of these claims, prosecutors summoned Abby's relatives and friends, including an influential man, Horace Greeley.

However, Greeley did not like the corrupt Democrat machine, Tammany Hall, and Greeley had repeatedly destroyed him in his newspaper. In return, Tammany Hall used their considerable influence before and during the trial to discredit Greeley and Abby.

In the final conclusion of the two-day jury, Graham tried to convince the jury that his client was only a victim of unbearable consequences.

"Evidence proves the insanity of the accused during the shootings," Graham said. "It was a state of mind he suffered as a result of the thought of losing his home, wife and children."

The jury bought Graham's incredible defense, just like Mark bought it into a three-car Monte Carlo game. On May 10, it took them only one hour and 55 minutes to make a acquittal based on insanity.

Despite her deep disappointment, Abby Sage Richardson remained firmly in New York City after the trial. She became a successful writer and playwright and has been well received in the literary and social communities. She also edited and published Richardson's unpublished books.

Abby also pledged to dying Richardson to raise her three children. She also raised her son, Daniel, whose name was changed to Willie [not related to his father, Daniel McFarland]. Abby's other son, Percy, left McFarland and returned to his mother. He changed his surname from McFarland to his mother's maiden name, Sage.

On December 5, 1900, Abby Sage Richardson died of pneumonia in Rome.

Daniel McFarland traveled west in 1880. He was last heard in Colorado, and there are no records of his death to date. But, according to historian Edmund Pearson, "it didn't take long to commit suicide by drinking."

Albert Richardson was buried in his hometown of Franklin, Massachusetts. Highlighted in Franklin is a monument to Richardson's heroic heroes during the Civil War. The inscription on the monument reads: "Many people thank you, who does not know your face, then, farewell, kind heart and truth."

Africa travel tips to Mozambique

Mozambique is famous for its beaches and shrimps, and Mozambique also offers visitors world heritage, colonial architecture and colorful local culture. The bustling markets sell exquisite carvings and basket utensils, as well as Marcond wood and ivory sculptures considered to be one of Africa's most complex art forms.

Mozambique has also trained talented painters like Malangatana, and rural murals have decorated many walls, especially in Maputo. Traditional music comes in the form of Marrabenta music, Marimba and gourd orchestra. At African rhythms, the ritual introductory dance of Nhau and mapico can be frightening. Popular activities for travelers include diving, snorkeling, bird watching and fishing for marlin, sailfish or kingfish.




Subtropics are common, although there is little drought and rainfall. The rainy season is from October to April, and the dry season is from April to September.


1 Mozambique Metical = 100 points. Traveler's checks in US dollars or British pounds are recommended. Exchange currency at an authorized institution. Credit cards are not widely accepted. Many business people like dollars. Import and export of local currency is prohibited.


220 volts, 50 Hz. The plugs are 2-pin and 3-pin round.


Travelers over 1 year of age from infected areas need yellow fever vaccination. Tourists are advised to take precautions against malaria [risks throughout the country throughout the year], hepatitis A, polio, typhoid and meningitis, depending on the area visited and the time of year. Other health issues include basic medical facilities, unavailable medicines, cholera [to maintain strict food and water sanitation], and influenza [risks throughout the year].


The official language is Portuguese, but Makua and Tsonga are also used. English is not widely used but understandable.

Public vacation:

New Year's Day [January 1]; Heroic Day [February 3]; Women's Day [April 7]; Labor Day [May 1]; Independence Day [June 25]; Victory Day [9 March 7]; Armed Forces Day [September 25]; Day of Invalidation [November 2]; Christmas Day [December 25]; Boxing Day [December 26]


Basket weed mats; wood carving; mask printed leather products; prawns; wine.

Social customs:

Religion is mainly Roman Catholic, but other beliefs include Muslim, Hindu and traditional beliefs. Handshake is a customary form of greeting. Portuguese customs, such as address patterns [Senhor / Senhora] apply. Dress casually and rarely wear formal attire. Business travel suits are acceptable in hot weather, and lighter clothing is recommended for the rest of the year.

time difference:

GMT +2


Ten percent is customary, but it is not recommended in hotels. Taxi drivers expect ten percent.

Introduction of the top ten attractions:


The capital has a wide boulevard, lined by red acacia trees and lilac blue flowers. It offers many historical, cultural and scenic attractions, such as the cathedral; the city council conference hall; the Tunduro Gardens; the railway station; the fortress and the Natural History Museum; the beaches include Praia da Macaneta; Ponta do Ouro and Ponta Malongane.


224 km from Maputo; the nearby beach is a popular tourist destination, and its large reefs protect the coast from strong waves at high tide; locals collect shellfish for sale to tourists at low tide; it is also possible to Visit the Praia do Chongoene, Bilene and Banhine National Parks, which are rich in wildlife.

Mozambique Island:

About two-thirds of the island was declared a "World Heritage". Decided by UNESCO because these buildings were built with coral; places of interest include the Palace of São Paulo, the Museum of Sacred Art and the fortress of San Sebastian. Nearby beaches are Praia de Fernão Veloso and Praia das Chocas; on the mainland of Nampula, you can visit the cathedral and museum.


Beira, the country's second largest city, is located along the coast. Visit Largo do Municipio, House of Portugal, House of Sagres, House of Bicos and Cathedral; the best beaches can be found between Clube Nautico and the lighthouse; six miles away is an inland resort with an artificial lagoon, There are islands on the island where you can swim or rent a pedal boat; the games to watch in the province are the famous Gorongosa National Park and Marromeu Buffalo Reserve.


The archipelago is a very popular tourist area, including the Bazaruto, Benguerra, Magaruque and Santa Carolina islands near the mainland, as well as quality hotels; in Inhambane on the mainland, you can visit the Church of Our Lady. Protected areas include Zinave National Park and Bazaruto National Park.


The city has unspoilt natural beauty; visit the old town, where you can visit several traditional markets, Playa do Umbe beach and Playa do Faro beach; nearby Ibo Island It is part of the idyllic Quirimbas Islands.

Lake Nyasa and Lake Nyasa Reserve:

Niassa Province has stunning views and landscapes; the unspoiled Lake Niassa is only accessible via 4×4 and offers you a "True Africa" ​​seasoned fishing village where you can buy fresh fish and coconut milk ; Niassa Nature Reserve is famous for its large number of elephants.


34 km from the Gulf of Maputo, which can be reached by boat or plane; you can visit Punta Santa Maria and the Portuguese island.

Maputo Elephant Sanctuary:

The reserve is 79 kilometers south of Maputo and is famous for its elephant herds. Flamingos can also be seen on inland lakes close to the sea.

Old man's face:

In the city of Chimoio, Cabeçado Velho's is a spectacular natural stone structure that resembles an old man's face.

Is your doctor working abroad?

Doctors will accompany their clients to holiday homes and luxury spas. Standards and certifications are an international effort.

For years, rich men and celebrities have traveled abroad from time to time to participate in bite / tweed surgery, repairs, and other medical activities. Today, the average American can enjoy an international medical vacation, and the entire family can spend less than the price of a knee surgery in the United States [$ 40,000].

The United States has been ranked 37th by the World Health Organization [WHO]. In 2008, one million people went outside the United States to seek medical-related services. Medical recuperation at tropical "luxury" spas seems to be getting better. people.

Action Required-Will Travel
Since the Romans cured their illness in mysterious places, medical tourism has emerged. In modern terms, the top services for travel are:
o Plastic Surgery
o Cosmetics and general dentistry
o Diet pills
o Addiction treatment
o General Surgery
o Health

If you are already one of the million travelers, or are considering increasing these numbers, you will want to know what it all means.

Physicians around the world fly with their clients, in hospital wards in foreign hospitals, and in five-star spas similar to luxury hotels. Their alliance with international nations allows them to profit and an exotic environment. Some regulations may even be attracted by relaxed laws to carry out more experimental procedures, such as stem cell research innovations not yet approved in the United States.

Today, medical institutions such as Johns Hopkins University, Mayo Clinic, and Harvard University [to name a few] all have overseas institutions. According to Business Week, Blue Cross and Blue Shield of South Carolina also signed strategic alliances with seven overseas hospitals in 2008.

Your doctor may have made an appointment in Guatemala, Thailand, Costa Rica or the Philippines. just asking. Take Thailand as an example. It was reported that 1.5 million people used medical tourism in 2007. Physicians around the world are registered there. Reaching the world, so is responsibility.

Medical marketing

My recent medical tourism trip in Costa Rica included meetings with doctors, spas, government officials, and encouraged calls for action at medical spas and spa-related centers to be certified. Costa Rica hosted its first medical tourism conference last year and is rapidly adapting to become a leader in the industry.

Flashy advertisements, incentives and medical tourism “supporting plans” have attracted great attention from foreign medical institutions and their spa and leisure counterparts. Medical tourism can bring economic growth, reputation, international alliances and goodwill. It also raises big questions about medical standards and medical spa recognition. How will the outflow of foreign patients be treated? This growth is also in stark contrast to the high expenditures attracting the centre's gleaming medical tourists, and the improvement of the airport compared to the lower level of public health services for its citizens. For this article, we stick to the first question. standard.

Patient trust and loyalty

The national call for action, supported by a government interested in accreditation, is a good starting point and the subject of my meeting with Costa Rica's Chief of Staff Massimo Manzi. We worked closely with the International Tourism Board to discuss the growth expectations of the medical tourism industry and the need for spa / medical spa recognition standards.

International standards are required to effectively integrate crossovers with the growing number of medical tourism and its cooperating spa recovery centres. Spas have become an attractive soft side of the medical tourism industry and a large part of its growth. Particularly in Costa Rica, strong local incentives, partnerships and associations are needed. The Costa Rican Spa and Wellness Association, for example, is expected to be established this year. After all, the goal here is to be competitive and ensure the confidence of potential customers.

Most countries use their own methods to ensure standards. Where is the harmonization? How long does certification take place globally?

According to the Medical Tourism Association, their "Quality of Care" program is moving towards this and global medical tourism standards. "This project will contribute to the development of medical tourism and make patients feel more comfortable and confident when undergoing surgery abroad … Our mission is to provide" transparency "to medical data in the field of medical tourism / global healthcare." Worldwide The Medical Tourism Association, the main hospital providing these procedures, has been accredited by JCI, the International Joint Commission, including CIMA and Clinica Biblica in San Jose's capital, Costa Rica. JCI ensures that the hospital meets standards or closes. Regarding spa certification, we are committed to providing expertise on spa quality and driving action throughout Costa Rica. SPA standards, especially those related to medicine, also require higher responsibilities or closures.

Feedback from professionals

We talked to Hannelore Leavy, the founder of the Day Spa Association, on the subject and her interest in working with multiple countries in accordance with the DSA Day Spa Association or IMSA [International Medical Spa Association] guidelines. "These guidelines are the basis of our certification program and can be modified in accordance with the local laws of each country that regulates the regulatory body." DSA's mission statement includes "… professionalism and quality-driven services. Continuous improvement … "and IMSA's mission statement" … continuously improve practical but rigorous ethical peer review based on the highest standards and standards of care. "

Continuous improvement is a great way to boost the industry, and in this case we will work to achieve key differentiation.

Statistics from the Costa Rica Tourism Board show that Costa Rica's hospitals perform approximately 250 operations related to health and cosmetic surgery each month. Ninety percent of them are performed on foreigners. This is not surprising when you see the cost difference.

Belly: US $ 10,000 CR $ 4,500
Dressup: $ 12,000 CR $ 4,700

Costa Rica has many large hospitals and more than 500 spa facilities that you can choose from. Hope to be recognized by JCI and International Spa Standards Professional Association. In this case, please follow up with the recognition of the Costa Rican Spa and Wellness Association or DSA / IMSA as a global partner.

Whether caused by compulsory medical problems or mandatory requirements, health tourism is booming. This means more demanding standards and fierce competition. Competition promotion strategy. Strategy, creativity. Creativity, the possibility of cutting corners. This is especially the case when less developed countries may rely heavily on tourist numbers and medical tourism to achieve economic growth.

There are many associations dedicated to being the face of the industry, including IMSA, the Medical Tourism Association and the International Chamber of Health Tourism, which have made great strides in standards and uniformity.

Add noise

There are many layers of onions in this industry, which have yet to be discovered. We must not allow "medical imperialism" with paranoia towards foreign doctors, and do not even "compete" medical facilities that are well-known in the United States in order to establish foreign satellites. And international efforts to ensure medical tourism / medical spa / spa standards.

I may be an idealist, and I hope some remain, but I believe we can continue to force the desire of foreign officials to gain recognition and create a balance for all involved. I will continue to promote the growth of standards and creativity without cutting corners.

You can contact Costa Rican officials on spa / medical spa standards and make sure we take action nationwide and form a local spa association to join the cause and get noticed. Send comments to government officials to increase your attention and the need to establish an assessment system with association and standards requirements;

o President of ICT [Costa Rica]-Carlos Ricardo Benevides
o Central Office: 011 506 2299 5800
o Tourism Planning Minister-Antonio Farah
o Central Office: 011 506 2299 5293
o Minister of Competitiveness-Massimo Manzi
o Central Office: 011 506 2299 5293

In the meantime, you can enjoy medical travel and don't forget to enjoy some of the cultural charm of the beautiful country that hosts foreign medical tourists. Spread the word. make change.

Create better foundations with Rub-R-Wall waterproofing solution

Waterproofing with a film is time consuming. You have to consider preparation time, weather delay and duration of concrete curing. All these aspects extend the time required to complete the construction schedule. With Rub-R-Wall waterproofing solutions, it's easy to reduce latency and save time. This also results in accelerated construction, which reduces overhead costs. Therefore, it is good for the owners as they can move into the building immediately and also increase their income. Rub-R-Wall is a liquid that is applied to a single rubber component.

The temperature at which this is done needs to be ideally set, so it is ideal to hire a professional company to do this. The film should have excellent adhesion. In addition, it also has excellent inherent strength and elasticity, which makes expansion and contraction easy, which largely compensates for construction gaps. This waterproof solution is used in industrial institutions and commercial applications. It also provides many benefits, some of which are shown below.

1. Unlike other waterproofing solutions, it is not easy to crack later because it does not contain 100% asphalt.

2. Non-carcinogenic and non-toxic. Therefore, it does not immerse any chemicals in the groundwater or the ground. It is this aspect that makes it an environmentally friendly choice.

3. The membrane is designed to resist the attack of algae, fungi and bacteria. This ensures that good performance is maintained and that the property is not exposed to the gases and chemicals generated in the soil.

4. The solution also offers a lifetime warranty and complies with building codes. It is the best waterproof solution to ensure that water is prevented from passing under static pressure.

This waterproof solution has many uses. It can be used for foundation walls, ramps, tunnels, squares, pedestrian halls and bridge decks. To ensure you get the most out of your waterproofing solution, we recommend weighing your options carefully. You also get the services of a company that can repair existing foundations with leaks. This will ensure that a proper moisture barrier is in place and eliminate damage from water leakage. The Rub-R-Wall waterproofing solution cannot be ignored because it has all these advantages and more.

Choosing the best waterproof material also involves considering appropriate application methods. Some waterproof materials require special types of applications that you may not be familiar with. The initial application may require you to apply a variety of waterproof materials. However, if you are doing an annual waterproof application, you may need to reapply it partially or fully. When using for the first time, you should consider using the ideal product for different waterproof materials.

Waterproof treatment is perfect for brick, wood and concrete surfaces. You can save a lot of time and money by choosing waterproof materials that can be used on all surfaces of a building. The length of the surface that you want to waterproof is critical because it determines the amount you spend on waterproofing materials. It is also important to consider the safety of waterproof materials. You should not purchase materials that pose serious health risks to you and your pet. The most important thing is to choose a waterproof material and reduce the number of coatings.